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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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This is the lowest possible point water can flow

Base level

What are the two determining factors for river flow?


Climate it flows through

What is created when precipitation rate exceeds soil infiltration?

What happens to the product of this interaction?


It starts overland flow or what's called sheet flow

What are the two types of temporary channel created by sheet flow



What are the three processes of Fluvial erosion?

Raindrop impact that picks up and carries sediment



What happens when precipitation rate exceeds soil infiltration rate?


When Sheetflow occurs where does it drain into?


A thin layer of water that moves downslope without being confined to channels


What is the area occupied by the system of the river and its tributaries called?

Drainage basin

This type of drainage pattern is the most efficient way to move fluid


This type of drainage pattern is found where mountains are sources


This type of drainage pattern is spuratic and occurs when the landscape got ****** up


Glaciers make this

How does a stream navigate across a resistant rock

It goes straight through

How does stream navigate through a non resistant rock type

It creates more channels

What the **** is a trellis?

Near right angled streams formed over resistant rock

How are canyons formed

They are formed by streams cutting through resistant rock.l and non resistant rock is eroded through

What is a superimposed stream?

A steam on top of or passing through a mountain

What are the 2 types of superimposed mountains?

One that passes over a buried mountain

One that cuts through an emerging mountain range, creating a water gap and eventually a steam valley

What are valleys formed from?

Easily eroded rock

What are the 3 ways a river can cut through a geological structure

Antecedent stream (there first)

Cutting across uplifted ridge

River keeps pace with uplift

What is Q

The amount of water leaving the steam (discharge)

Where does water move slowest?

On the edges or top

How do you calculate stream gradient?

relief ÷ distance

What is the Q for rock river?

.5 m/km

This type of gradient flow is low volume, moderate velocity, and turbulent flow


This type of flow type is high volume, high velocity


When erosion = deposition what kind of steam is it?

Graded steam

If a river has decreased erosion what happens to it's base level and sediment load?

^ base level

V sediment load

If a river system has decreased base level what does that mean for its erosion and sediment load?


V sediment load

This is the point in which water drops significantly


What are the 3 processes that causes a river to erode rock

Hydraulic action



Hydraulic action

Force of the water


Force of impact sediment


Dissolved sediment

What are the 3 things that control Fluvial erosion


Friction on bed and banks

Erodibility of bed and banks

What does Saltation mean?


How much is the average dissolved load?


How much is the average suspended load?


What % is the bed load?


What is the suspended load composed of?

clay and silt

What is the bedload composed of?

sand and gravel

What initiates deposition

Decreased velocity

What is Alluvium?

Fluvial sediments deposited by a river

Do large or small pieces of sediment get dropped first?


Order these in from first to last dropped

Sand/ silt/ gravel

Gravel, sand, silt

What is the gradient and development stage of a V shaped valley



What is the gradient and development stage of a U shaped valley?



This type of channel pattern occurs when the load is too great to transport


This type of channel pattern occurs in a balanced graded steam


Which moves faster, the inside of a curve or the outside of a curve?


How do valleys expand?

The shifting river shape over time

Writhing snake

Inside or outside, where is the river cut and where does it deposit sediment

It cuts on the outside

Deposits on the inside

What is a meander loop?

A single curve or bend on a stream

Watersheds are defined by?

drainage divides

Excess surface water percolates down through the zone of _____ to reach the zone of ______ at and below the water table



When a river reaches base level, it's forward velocity earthly decelerates as it enters a large body of standing water and ______ Is formed

A delta

History seems to teach us that humans are generally unwilling or unable to perceive hazards in a familiar environment. True or False?