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45 Cards in this Set

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Death

The cessation of life

Mourning

Outward expression of bereavement and grief

Bereavement

The process of adjusting to the experience of loss , especially to the death of friends or loved ones



- Involves the overall experience of loss

Grief

The intense emotional suffering that accompanies our experience of loss

Mourning

The outward expression of bereavement and grief

Factors affecting risk of death

- Eating Habits, Lifestyle, Health habits


-Heredity


-Smoking


-Personality


-Stress management

Mortality Salience

Awareness of our own mortality



Factors: Events surrounding us (accidents, loss of loved ones, natural disasters) cause our mortality salience to fluctuate daily


Death Anxiety

Fear of death



-People in 20s have the most death anxiety


-Events can also increase death anxiety in individuals



Late adulthood: tend to talk more about death


-usually fear death less, more afraid of process



Children's understanding of death

Under 3 year old: no cognitive maturity to understand death, however can still miss/absence



3-5 years old: No understanding of the biological underpinnings of death, seen as temporary



6-10 years old: Knowledge of death increases in complexity


-death is inescapable


-death happens to everyone


-death is inevitable


-death stops bodily processes


-death is biological

Experience of dying

The physical and psychological changes experienced by individuals nearing death

Experience of dying Stages

(1) Coming to terms with mortality


(2) Physical and Cognitive changes that occur



Stages:


(1). Denial of death


(2). Anger & Resentment


(3). Bargain for time


(4) Depression


(5) Acceptance

Grief Work

The healthy process of working through emotions associated with loss, freeing ourselves emotionally from the deceased, readjustment to life without that person, resuming ordinary activities, forming new relationships

Acute Bereavement

2a: integrated grief


2b. complicated grief



*Acute Bereavement: Normal, 6 months


- Sharp pain, intense


-Dominates your experiences


- Deep, profound nature of pain


-momentary cliffs - triggers


-variable course-moments


-overtime less pain and disruption and becomes less dominates

Integrated Grief

(90%) Duration: Lifelong or stress, normal



*Integrated Grief: primarily a background state; grief is experienced from time to time, part of a persons sense of self



-Yearning


-Anniversary reactions


-Memoralizing


-not dominating


-less idealizing view of deceased


-


Complicated Grief

(10%) Abnormal, after 6 months - ongoing



2 major predictions:


(1) Nature of death


(2) Relationship with the deceased



-not adjustment


-mind, emotions, and life dominated by the experience of loss of the loved one, ongoing


-psychological state in which a persons emotional reaction to loss remains repressed, often being manifested in unexplained physical or psychological symptoms .

Self Concept

The overall image or awareness we have of ourselves, including those perceptions of "I" and "me", together with feelings, beliefs, and values associated with them



-There is a consistency/ coherence to our thoughts and actions

Self protective processes

(1) Discounting: the significance of an ability traditionally values by society is lessened


(2) self-serving attributional bias: beliefs that glorify the self or conceive of the self as causing good outcomes that come out way (fundamental attribution error)

Four kinds of self

- Body image: the awareness of my body


-Self-image: the self I see myself to be


-ideal-self: the self I'd like to be


-social self: the ways I feel others see me



Multiple selves


Ideal Self

The self you would like to be, including your aspirations, moral ideals, and values



-With experience & maturity aspirations should increasingly become representative of self-chosen goals and values


Social Selves

Comprised of the impressions we think others have of us, which may or may not be an accurate reflection of reality

Spotlight Effect

overestimate how prominent our own behavior, appearance, and emotions are to others

Multiple Selves or self-complexity

the extent to which one's self concept is comprised of many differentiated self-aspects


-varies from person to person, and culture to culture

The core of the self-concept

Those aspects of ourselves we regard as very important to us (religious, racial, ethnic, academic, physical)

Self consistency

the tendency to perceive our experiences in a manner consistent with our self-concept


Self immunization

trivializing threatening information by making behavior seem less important

Mnemonic Neglect

poor recall, or forgetting, of negative feedback that is inconsistent with core aspects of the self concept

Self- esteem

the personal evaluation of ourselves and the associated feelings of worth


Four main types: physical attractiveness


physical abilities


cognitive abilities


social relationships

Influences on self-esteem

childhood experiences


own standards of self-worth


images perpetuated by media


culture - individualistic versis collective


success v. failure

Effects of high and low self esteem

high self esteem : associated with positive feelings, happy, positive well being, persist in the face of failure


can also lead to antisocial behavior



low self esteem: associated with negative thoughts about oneself etc...

Minority stress and self esteem

minority stress: the psychological and social stress associated with minority status



-self protective mechanism for maintaining self esteem

Striving for self- esteem

how people strive for self-esteem is important in regards to personal growth and adjustment than whether their level of self esteem is high or low

Self enhancement (organizational process)

The tendency to evaluate oneself favorably, try to attain positive feedback that affirms their own ideas about their positive qualities

Self verification (organizational process)

the tendency to attempt to preserve their own images (both + and -) of themselves and therefore elicit feedback that verifies or confirms their own self perceptions (both + and -)



- Gives us a sense of consistency and stability



-more rate in contrast to self protection


-depression : less likely to accept positive feedback


-self protection bias

Self- Ideal Discrepancy

Perceived real self and real self



-Larger the discrepancy the poorer self esteem


Behavioral Self- Handicapping

Actively creating an obstacle to performances, so that poor performance can be attributed to the obstacles rather than to internal factors



- Preparatory : for excuse

Self Attribution bias

(self-serving attribution)



Positive outcome - internal causes


Negative outcome - external causes

Body Image

the mental images, attitudes, and feelings we form of our own bodies

Body image in relation to ideal

- 55 percent of 8-10 year old girls are dissatisfied with their bodies and 35 percent of boys



-body satisfaction continues with age


-less important in adulthood

Media and Body Image

Effects of media on female body image: media increases the desire to be thin, greater exposure to media is associated with poorer body image, women of color however experience greater body satisfaction



Effects of media on boys: not as great as women, although still exist


Ideal body and us

Satisifaction with our bodies in greatly influenced by our image of our ideal body



closer we are to our ideal body the less pressure we feel



- tendency to view our bodies more negatively the farther they are from our ideal

Self - efficacy

the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute actions required to produce given attainments



-both psychological and physical well-being and functioning are enhanced by higher self-efficacy

Factors in seeking medical care

(1) noticing and interpreting symptoms


(2) seeking professional help when needed


(3) adhering to the prescribed treatment

Assessing body image

- self - report measures


-figural stimuli

Kaerbye- Thygenson study

sample: 27-38 y.o women, 50th percentile BMI, below, not extremely overweight but not obsess



"why do slim women consider themselves heavy"?



Comparison to "too heavy" and acceptable



findings:


higher BMI - heavier


age did not matter, incrusted age= more acceptable weight



earlier sexual activity amount those who felt heavy



more sports involvement greater heavier feeling




Stages of change model

1. precontemplation


2. contemplation


3. preparation


4. action


5. maintanece


6. transcendence