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123 Cards in this Set

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Nature

Genetic development

Nurture

Influences, experience

Developmental psychology

Nature and nurture


Continuity and stages


Stability and change


Embryo

Human organism about 2 weeks

Fetus

Humans organism from 9 weeks

Teratogens

Chemical that can kill or cause harm in the embryo or fetus

Zygote

Fertilized egg

Fatal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Abnormalities in children caused by a woman's heavy drinking

Habituation

Stimulation

Continuity

Experience and learning, slow process

Stages

Step by step in life , like walking before running

Stability

Provides our Identity

Change

Temperament. Change

Schemas

Mental representation of the world

Assimilation

process of incorporating new info to fit existing schemas

Accommodation

Process of modifying existing schemas in response to new information

Permissive:

Do whatever, no demands

Authoritarian:

Restrict, punish, dont question, little verbal exchange

Neglectful-Uninvolved:

Who cares?... "Matilda movie"

Authoritative:

Encourage independence, verbal exchange as appropriate, warm, nurture

Parenting Style are...

Authoritative


Neglectful-Uninvolved


Authoritarian


Permissive

Maturation

Change in behavior by experience, biological growth process.


-the orderly sequence of biological growth

Critical period

period early in life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli

Sensorimotor Stage

Piaget's theory, the stage(from birth to about 2 years of age)experiencing the world with senses and actions.

Object permanence

awareness that things continue to exist even when no perceived

Cognition

All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

The biological growth process, called__________, explain why most children begin walking by about 12 to 15 months.

Maturation

Conservation

the principle that properties such as mass

egocentrism

piaget theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

theory of mind

people's ideas

concrete operational stage

Piaget theory, 7 to 11 yrs age, childrenthink logicallly about concrete events.


-Math

Stranger anxiety

newly emerging ability to evaluate people as unfamiliar

Imprinting

Process of attachments in animals( in a critical period )

Preoperational Stage

2 to 7 yrs, Pretend to play, representing things with words and images

Concrete operational

7 to 11 yrs, conservation, math, thinking logically about concrete events

Formal operational

12 to up, abstract logic and reasoning

Adolescente

transition period

Puberety

Period of sexual maturation

Intimacy

ability to form close, love, relationship

Emergin adult

period from the late teens, to mid twenties, between adolesncets, responsability more

Temperament

Emotional reactivity and intensity

Social identity

self-concept

Identity

our sense of self

Menopause

natural cessation of menstruation

Cross-Sectional Study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.

Longitudinal study

Same people are studied and retested over a long period

Social Clock

timing of social events such as marriage

Love

Intimacy, attachment....

Conditioned

Learned

Classical conditioning

Associating events/ stimuli with each other

Basic Idea

Operant conditioning

Associating chosen behaviors with resulting events

Basic idea

Response in Classical Conditioning

Involuntary, automatic reactions such as salivatin

Response in Operant conditioning

Voluntary actions in our environment

Ivan Pavlov

Russia's 1 Nobel prize, 1904 for his work on the digestive system

Associative learning means...

Learn that two stimuli occur together

le...two...occ..ther...

S

Stimulus

NS

Neutral stimulus

US

Unconditioned stimulus

UR

Unconditioned Response

CS

Conditioned Stimulus

CR

Conditioned Response

Extinction

Making the behavior go away

Generalization

Respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimule

Discrimination

-distinguish between different stimuli


-respond to a particular tone or sounds

Acquisition

Initial time of process of learning the behavior

Operant Conditioning

Learning by reinforcement and/or punishment

Reinforcement means...

increasing the probably of the response

Punishment means...

decreasing the probably of the response

Shaping

Rewarding successive approximations

dog colors understand some organisms

Reinforcer→

Strenghens the(increase probability) behavior it follow

Primary Reinforcer

Satisfies a biological need

Food( water....)

Secundary Reinforcer

(conditioned)→Learned

Food( Licor, money, grades....

Positive Reinforcer

Adding to Increases probability of a response

Negative Reinforcer

Taking away to increases the probability of behavior...

Punishment→

Weakens( decreases probability) the behavior it follows

Positive Punishment

Adding to decreases the probability of a response

Negative Punishment

Taking away to decrease the probability of a response

Side effects Punishment

become abusive....

Observational Learning

Learn without direct experience by watching and imitating others

Mirror neurons

-Frontal lobe


-enable observation and imitation

?

Prosocial

Modeling of behavior can have prosocial effects

Antisocial Effects

Abusive parents may have aggressive children


-Bullying


-......

Learning is

Information or behaviors

two form of associative learning are classical conditioning,in which the organism associates______. and operant conditioning, in which the organism associates.

Two or more stimuli; a response and consequence

what stage give dream to real time?

=Rem

If you are experiment strength, slowed down, what stage are you in?

=N3

If you are in the Stage who has Flaccid Peripheral Muscles?

=Rem

Some physical things of Rem are?

=Eyes movements

Someone who stop breathing in the sleep, so he have

=Sleep apnea

Is relative to Sleep attack?

=Nacolepsy

a child experience in ______ wake up with the eyes open, and stay body in _____ stage cycle

sleep terror ; N3

Marijuana is an example of ??

=hallucinogen

drugs depress natural activity and provide temporary...../???.?.?>896587 excited are?

=opiates

alcohol or.. is example of?

=Depressent

Caffeine and tea are example of ?

=Stimulis

organisms usually have natural behavior, this is an example of?

=biological predisposition

What are Issues in early adulthood?

=children development

what are the two types of social development?

=Traditional and puberty

According to Erikson what are some isssues of young adulthood?

=Intimacy vs. Isolation

According to Erikson what are some isssues of Infancy?

Trust vs. mistrust

Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

those working in the fiel________ ____ study the brain sctivity with perception, thinking,memory, and language

Cognitive neuroscience

Blindsight

respond to a visual stimulus without conciously experiencing it

Change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

Circadian(ser-KAY-dee-an) Rhythm

Biological clock

REM Sleep

rapid eye movement sleep


also known as Paradoxical sleep

Delta waves

The larges, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

alpha waves

slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

Insomnia

no sleep

Sleep attack

Narcolepsy

Sleep apnea

disorder or problems of breathing

latent content

underlying meaning of a dream

manifest content

freud. remembered story line of a dream

In interpreting dream, Freud was most interested in their..?

=Latent conten, or hidden meaning

The dendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation is referrred to as ______________

REM rebound

Depressants

alcohol barbituurates... are depressaants

Stimulants

Caffeine,nicotine,cocaine... are Stimulants

Hallucinogens

Marijuana, LSD.. are Hallucinogens

Opiates

heroin, morphine, codeine.... are Opiates

Ketamine

anesthetic

Rohypnol

CNS depressant

Methamphetamine

CNS stimulant,damage dopamine neural systems



PCP

Developed as anesthetic for surgery