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258 Cards in this Set

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Land plants have a ________ life cycle

Haplodiplonic

Gametophytes (N) produce _______

Gametes (N+N)

Gametes (N+N) become ________

Sporophytes (2N)

Sporophytes (2N) produce _______

Spores (-N)

Spores (-N) become ______

Gametophytes (N)

What are the organs of a plant

Stems


Roots


Leaves

General Features of Land Plants

multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes

A group of cells with the same function/structure

tissues

A specific arrangement of tissues to form a functioning unit

organs

The generations of plants

gametophyte, sporophyte

How are plants similar to green algae?

Same chlorophyls (a & b), storage material (starch), and structural material (cellulose)

What are the 3 Major Plant Groups?

Non-vascular Plants (Bryophytes)


Seedless Vascular Plants (LVP)


Seed Plants

Of the 3 Major Plant Groups, which one(s) is sporophyte dominant?

Seedless Vascular Plants (LVP)


Seed Plants

Of the 3 Major Plant Groups, which one(s) is gametophyte dominant?

Non-vascular plants (bryophytes)

Non-vascular plants are considered to be the most _________

primitive

the bryophytes are

mosses and related plants

Bryophytes do NOT have

vascular tissues

The vascular tissues of plants include:

phloem


xylem

Phloem is the

transporting tissue for water

Xylem is the

transporting tissue for "food" or carbohydrates

Xylem transports

"food"

Phloem transports

water

Lower Vascular Plants includes

ferns and related plants

The two subgroups of Seed Plants are:

Gymnosperms


Angiosperms

Gymnosperms are

non-flowering seed plants

Angiosperms are

flowering seed plants

Angiosperms are the most ______ of all the land plants

complex

Importance of Plants

oxygen production, CO2 sinks, food, clothing, building materials, fuels, aesthetics.


Can have negative affects

The dominant generation of Bryophytes is

gametophyte

The smallest and least structurally complex of the land plants

Non-vascular plants

3 Phyla of Non-vascular plants

Hepaticophyta


Anthocerotophtya


Bryophyta

Hepaticophyta is commonly called

liverworts

Anthocerotophyta is commonly called

hornworts

Bryophyta is commonly called

mosses

The two types of Hepaticophyta

Leafy liverworts


thalloid liverworts

Leafy liverworts are ___________ in appearance

moss-like

Thalloild liverworts have a _____________ shape

flattened, irregular

The morphology of Antherocerotophyta in its dominant generation

thalloid

The defining feature of Phylum Anthocerotophyta is

sporophytes have a distinctive, long, horn-like capsule

Mosses that aren't actually mosses

lichen


sea moss & Irish moss


club moss


Spanish moss


scale moss

Protonema

germinating spore= "baby gametophyte"

the adult gametophyte of bryophytes have

leaves


stems


rhizoids

the reproductive structures of bryophyta are

archegonium


antheridium

antheridium is

the male gametopyte of bryophyta

archegonium is

the female gametophyte of bryophyta

Where are the reproductive structures located for Bryophyta

at the top of the leaves

What is absolutely necessary for reproduction when considering Non-vascular plants

water

When considering Bryophyta, how does the sporophyte form?

It grows from the gametophyte and the foot, which is connects them, sucks nutrients from the parent gametophyte

what are the structures of a bryophyta sporophyte

foot


seta


capusle

Antheridia

Archegonia

What are the two major classes of Mosses

Bryidae


Sphagnidae

Class Bryidae are the

true mosses

Class Sphagnidae are the

peat/bog mosses

Most mosses are in what class?

Class Bryidae

Class Bryidae has a __________ in its sporophyte capsule

peristome

what is a peristome

teeth-like structure

Class Bryidae has a ____________ protonema

filamentous

Class Sphagnidae has a _________ protonema

thalloid

The gametophyte "leaf" structure of Class Sphagnidae are a(n)

mosaic of dead and living cells

Class Sphagnidae have sporophytes with _______ capsules

explosive

The mosses in Class Sphagnidae have what properties?

decay-resistance and antiseptic properties

Seedless Vascular Plants are sometimes called:

Lower Vascular Plants

Lower Vascular Plants have

vascular tissuses

The dominant generation of LVP are

Sporophytes

Do LVP produce seeds?

No

The two phyla of Seedless Vascular Plants are

Lycophyta


Pterophyta

Lycophyta are commonly referred to as

club mosses

Pterophyta are commonly referred to as

ferns and related plants

Phylum Lycophyta have _____________ when considering the morphology of their "leaves"

microphylls

Phylum Lycophyta sometimes produces spores on __________

strombili

strombili are

cones

the gametoptyes for Phylum Lycophyta are

very small and often underground

Why are vascular tissues an important adaptation for land plants?

Plants can more readily access food and water and gain the ability to have more biomass, particularly it allows plants to grow taller

Fern morphology includes

Fiddlehead


Rhizome


Roots

A fiddlehead is a(n)

new leaf the has yet to unfold

A rhizome, when considering Phylum Pterophyta, is

an underground stem

A typical fern leaf is considered a(n)

megaphyll

A megaphyll is composed of

pinnae

pinnae are

leaflets

another word for megaphyll is

frond

Phylum Pterophtya is __________ dominant

sporophyte

In Phylum Pterophyta, mature sporophytes have

sporngia

sporangia are

spore structure on the back of leaves

Phylum Pterophyta have ________ shaped gametophytes

prothallius

Phylum Pterophyta needs ______ for sexual reproduction

water

Other plants in Phylum Pterophyta are

whisk ferns (Psilotum)


horsetails or scouring rushes (Equisetum)

The dominant generation of seed plants is

sporophyte

What are the parts of a seed

seed coat


stored food


embryo

What is a seed?

baby sporophyte that is dormant

What are the functions of seeds?

Protection, Food Reserves, Dormancy, Dispersal

How are seeds a major evolutionary advantage?

Sexual reproduction no longer requires water

What are different types of seed dispersal?

Wind dispersal


Water dispersal


Animal dispersal

What are the two major types of seed plants?

Gymnosperms


Angiosperms

Gymnosperms are

non-flowering plants

Another way to say non-flowering plants is

naked seed plants

Angiosperms are

flowering plants

The Gymnosperms include what four Phylums

Coniferophyta


Gingkophyta


Cycadophyta


Gnetophyta

Phylum Coniferophyta are often referred to as

Conifers

Phylum Coniferophyta are

cone-bearing

Phylum Coniferophyta have __________ leaves

needle-like or scale-like

Examples of Phylum Coniferophyta include

Pines, Hemlocks, Junipers, Cedars, and Redwoods

Genus Pinus has needle-like leaves that are arranged in ___________

fascicles

fascicles are a

bundle/group of leaves

Needle-like leaves are an adaptation for what type of conditions

drought conditions

Genus Pinus produces sap via

resin ducts

The male cone of Genus Pinus is

small and produce pollen grains

Male cones of Genus Pinus are __________ and are in what generation

immature; gametophytes

Gametophytes produce

Gametes

Gametes become

Sporophytes

Sporophytes produce

Spores

Spores become

Gametophytes

Female cones of Genus Pinus are

large and will eventually produce female gametophytes

female gametophytes are

eggs

male gametophytes are

sperm

Pollination is the

transfer of pollen

Fertilization is the

creation of a zygote when sperm and egg meet

A zygote is

the 1st cell of an embryo

Phylum Ginkgophyta is in what classification of Seed Plants

Gymnosperms

Phylum Ginkgophyta has on extant species:

Ginkgo biloba

The species Ginkgo biloba has _______ shaped leaves

fan

Decidious

when plants lose all of its leaves during winter

Dioecious

when plants have separate male and female plants

Is the species Ginkgo biloba dioecious or monoecious

dioecious

The female species of Ginkgo biloba have

fleshy seed coats

Phylum Cycadophya superficially resemble:

palm trees

Trees within Phylum Cycadophyta are

Dioecious

Trees within Phylum Ginkgophyta are


-evergreen


-monoecious


-deciduous


-non of the above

deciduous

Phylum Gnetophyta has 3 extant genus:

Welwischia


Ephedra


Gnetum

Phylum Gnetophyta is the closest living realative to

angiosperms

The angiosperms have how many phyla?

one

What is that Phyla(um) of the Angiosperms?

Anthophyta

Another name for Phylum Anthophyta is

Magnoliophyta

Phylum Anthophyta are known as the

flowering or fruiting plants

What are the two major groups of Phylum Anthophyta?

Eudicots


Monocots

Phylum Anthophtya is diverse in

Morphology, anatomy, size, habitats, co-evolutionary traits, trophic (feeding-habits)

Angiosperms can have what trophic habits?

autotrophic


parasitic


semi-parasitic


auxotrophic


myco-heterotrophic

autotropic =

photosynthetic

parasitic plants are ______ parasites, and do not ________.

root; photosynthesize

Semi-parasitic plants:

photosynthsize, but tap into the xylem of other plants

xylem =

water

phloem =

food

auxotrophic plants are

predatory plants

myco-heterotrophic plants:

steal nutrients from fungi

Flowers are considered

modified leaves and stems

Flowers have four

whorls

The whorls of a flower are attached to a _________ which is attached to a __________.

receptacle; peduncle

The 1st whorl of a flower

Calyx

The sepals of a flower are in the whorl

calyx

The 2nd whorl of a flower

Corolla

The petals of a flower are in what whorl?

Corolla

The 3rd whorl of a flower

Androecium

The stamens of a flower are in what whorl

androecium

what makes up the stamen of the flower?

Anther


Filament

The androecium is the _______ part of the flower

male

the 4th whorl of a flower

gynoecium

The pistil of a flower is in what whorl

gynoecium

What parts make up the gynoecium of a flower?

Stigma


Style


Ovary

The gynoecium is the _________ part of the flower.

female

Another name for Pistil is

carpel

actinomorphic symmetry is

radial symmetry=round=can be separated in any way and be symmetric

zygomorphic symmetry is

bilateral symmetry=can only be separated one way and be symmetric

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the _________ to the __________.

stamen; pistil

A detailed explanation of pollination is

waterless transport of the male gametopyte (pollen) to the female gametophyte

What is the second step of pollination?

A pollen tube grows down the style to the ovary and two sperm travel down

Angiosperms go through _________ fertilization.

double

Double fertilization in angiosperms are when

2 sperm cells meet with one egg and the endosperm mother cell

The female gametophyte of angiosperms is the

Endosperm Mother Cell

The male gametophyte of angiosperms is

pollen

Endosperm Mother Cells have 2:

nuclei

Sperm + Egg =

Zygote

Sperm + Endosperm Mother Cell =

Endosperm

The endosperm is used for

food storage

Seed parts include


seed coat


endosperm


zygote

The difference between Eudicots and Monocots during embryo development

Eudiocots have two cotyledon


Monocots have one cotyledon

What does the fruit develop from in Anigosperms?

Surrounding ovary tissues and other plant parts

What are the 6 Eudicot Families?

Rosaceae


Fabaceae


Asteraceae


Cactaceae


Fagaceae


Juglandaceae

Family Rosaceae is a good example of

a typical eudicot

Common characteristics of Family Rosaceae include:

thorns, spines, prickles

The Rose Family have what type of symmetry?

Actinomorphic

Family Rosaceae have how many sepals and petals?

5 sepals-calyx


5 petals-corolla

Family Rosaceae have fused sepals, petals, and stamens, which is called:

hypanthium

Hypanthium is

when the first 3 whorls of a flower are fused

Family Fabaceae is commonly called the

Legume Family

Family Fabaceae have ________ leaves with tendrils on the end

compound

The fruit of Family Fabaceae are

Legumes

Family Fabacaeae have mainly what type of symmetry?

zygomorphic

Inflorescence is

a group of flowers

An example of Family Fabaceae is

Trifolium -clover

Family Asteraceae is commonly referred to as the

sunflower family

What are the two types of flowers in Family Asteraceae?

disk flowers


ray flowers

In Family Asteraceae, flowers in _____________ grow at the _______.

inflorescence; head

The disk flowers in Family Asteraceae grow where on the head?

the center

Disk flowers in Family Asteraceae have what symmetry?

actinomorphic

Ray flowers in Family Asteraceae grow where on the head?

the edge="petals"

Ray flowers in Family Asteraceae have what symmetry?

Zygomorphic

Examples of Family Asteraceae include:

Oxeye Daisy


Dandelion

True or False:


In Family Asteraceae, the head must have both ray flowers and disk flowers

False

Family Cactaceae is commonly called the

Cactus Family

Plants in Family Cactacea are

xerophytes

xerophytes are plants that grow in ________ conditions

drought

In Family Cactaceae, leaves are modified into

spines

In Family Cactaceae, the stems have been modified to become

succulent (water-holding)


Think the barrel of the cactus

Why are the spines present in Family Cactaceae important modifications?

Protection


Smaller leaves=more water retention

Family Fagaceae is commonly called the

Beech Family

Typical plants in Family Fagaceae are

trees or shrubs

Leaves for plants in Family Fagaceae are ______ and __________

simple; alternate

In Family Fagaceae, male flowers are in long inflorescences called

catkins

In Family Fagaceae, female flowers:

become the cupule (cap) of the fruit (acorn)

What is the fruit of Family Fagaceae?

Acorn

Family Juglandaceae have __________ leaves that are __________

compound, alternate

The fruit of Family Juglandaceae is a

nut or drupe enclosed in a "husk" or "shell"

What are the 3 monocot families?

Poaceae


Liliaceae


Orichidaceae

Family Poaceae is commonly called the

Grass Family

Family Poaceae have _________ flowers that are ___ ________

complex, not colorful

Plants in Family Poaceae grow from what point?

base

The fruit of Family Poaceae are?

Grains

Family Liliaceae are good examples of

monocots

Typical flowers in Family Liliaceae have:

3 sepals-calyx


3 petals-corolla


6 stamen-anderoecium


3 fused carpel-gynoecium

An example of Family Liliaceae is

Trillium

Family Orchidaceae is the __________ family of flowering plants

largest

Family Orchidaceae have what type of symmetry?

Strongly zygometric

Family Orchidaceae is considered the most

advanced monocot family

An example of Family Orchidaceae is

Lady's Slipper

An Angiosperm that is neither eudicot nor monocot

Family Magnoliaceae

Family Magnoliaceae has a flower that has

many parts per whorl

Family Magnoliaceae is

neither eudicot nor monocot

Plants grow from the

meristem

Apical Meristems grow from

the top and bottom of a plant

Secondary growth of plants is ________

lateral

Lateral growth of plants is formed by new layers of

xylem

Water enters the roots of plants via

hairs

Water travels up the plant via

xylem

Water exits the plant via holes in the leaves called

stomata

The process of water leaving the plant and entering the air

Evapotranspiration

How is water moved through the plant?

Water is pulled via evapotranspiration

How does evapotranspiration work?

when water molecules leave the plant via the stomata, it drags other water molecules because of hydrogen bonding. one water molecule pulls the rest from the bottom of the plant to the top via vascular tissues called xylem

How does the plant prevent water loss?

Stomata are enclosed in guard cells that open and close for gas exchange

the waxy coating on leaf that prevents water loss and gas exchange

cuticle

what is the solution to having cuticle

stomata

"Food" in plants travel via the ________ from places produced (________) to places where it's needed (_______).

phloem; sources; sinks

Carbohydrate transport is ________ through the plant via phloem

pushed

Plants are regulated by

Plant Growth Regulators

Stimuli that plants respond to

gravity


light


touch


mechanical stress

Gravitropism

directional growth response to gravity

phototropism

directional growth response to light

Thigmotropism

directional growth response to what it's touching

Mechanical stress on plants causes

reduction in growth

Plants perceive light via

zeaxanthin

When zeaxanthin perceives light it signals for the plant to send out this PGR

Auxin

Auxin causes

cell expansion

How does a plant bend towards light?

When zeaxanthin perceives light it sends extra auxin to the side of the plant in the shade. The auxin cause the cells to expand, and due to more auxin in the shaded side, the plant bends towards the light bc those cells are expanding more.

What are the Big 5 Plant Growth Regulators?

Cytokinins


Gibberellins


Ethylene


Abscisic Acid


Auxin

The PGR Cytokinins cause

bud activation

The PGR Gibberellins cause

germination of dormant seeds


stem elongation

The PGR Eythlene causes

Fruit ripening


Aging of leaves


Abscission of leaves (they fall off)

The PGR Auxin causes

cell expansion

The PGR Abscisic Acid (ABA) causes

Growth inhibition


Stress resistance


Stomata to close