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194 Cards in this Set

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Translation

Synthesis of a polypeptide using the information in the mRNA.

Promotor

The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription

Template Strand

The strand of DNA that is transcribed

Nucleotide

Any amino acid base

RNA

Ribose instead of deoxyribose


Single Stranded



RNA Polymerase

An Enzyme that pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins together RNA nucleotides complementary to the DNA template strand, thus elongating the RNA nucleotide

mRNA

Messenger RNA serves as a faithful transcript of the gene's protein-building instructions



Codon

mRNA nucleotide triplets that are written in the 5'-3' direction.

tRNA

"Translator"; Transfers amino acids from the cytoplasmic pool of amino acids to a growing polypeptide in a ribosome.



aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

20 differen synthetase. An enzyme that correctly matches up tRNA with the amino acid. Also catalyzes the attachment of the Amino acid to the tRNA

missense mutation

A substitute that changes one amino acid to another. Has very little affect on protein.



anticodon

At the opposite end of a tRNA molecule which has base pairs with the complementary codon in the mRNA.

amino acid

Monomer of polypeptides

Polypeptides

Polymers of amino acids. Product of translation



rRNA

Along with a protein it makes up the subunits of a ribosome.

polyA tail


(alteration of mRNA ends)

During mRNA processing, at the 3' end an enzyme adds 50-250 more adenine nucleotides.

introns

Intervening sequences that are noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding regions

exons

Expressed through being translated into amino acid sequence.

Spliceosome

snRNPS bind with several other proteins. It interacts with certain sites along an intron, releasing the intron, which rapidly degrades, and joining the two exons that flanked the intron.

Ribosome

Made up of two subunits. One large one small. Where RNA synthesis takes place.

signal peptide

Zipcode that decides that polypeptide destination

If a polypeptide has a ER Signal peptide

Endomembrane system where translation is completed



Other places proteins can go

Translation is finished in cytosol and then depending on the signal peptide it can either go to mitochondria, chloroplast, the interior of the nucleus, and other organelle.

Mutations

Changes in nucleotide sequence that can either have a devastating or little impact depending on the magnitude of the change

Nucleotide

Basic building block of DNA and RNA

Nucleotide pair subistitution

the replacement of one nucleotide and it's partner with another pair of nucleotides

Nucleotide pair insertion

Addition of a pair that causes a frameshift ultimately rendering the protein useless

Nucleotide pair deletion

3 nucleotides removed cause a whole protein to missing. Either renders protein useless or causes defects

missense mutation

When a substitution mutation causes one amino acid to be changed to another

Silent mutations

When a change in a nucleotide doesnt end up affecting the final product.

Nonsense mutation

When a nucleotide is substituted through mutation and a stop codon is created causing premature releasing and renders protein useless

ubiquitin

Attaches itself to a protein that is marked for destruction.

Proteosome

Degrades the defective protein into smaller peptides that can be broken up in the cytosol

The Cell Cycle

The life of a cell from the time it is first former from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two daughter cells

Importance of Mitotic cell division

Ability to produce more of own kind


Allows eukaryotic multicellular organisms to come from a fertilized egg.


Renewal, repair, replacing dying cells.

Interphase

Grows and copies chromosomes consists of G1, S, G2 phases. G0 phase is a thing aswell

G1 phase

Grows proteins and other organelle.

S phase

DNA Synthesize. Longest phase of Mitotic cell division.



G2 phase

More protein and organelle growing

Low frequency of division cells

Would spend time in G1 or G0 relative.

Mitosis

The reproduction of cells through splitting. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase/cytokinesis

G2 of interphase


(mitotic)

-Nuclear envelope encloses nucleus


-two centrosomes created from 1


-Nucleus contains 1 or more nucleoli

Prophase


(Mitotic)

-Chromatin become more densly coild. Visible with light


-Nucleoli dissapear


-Early mitotic spindle. Microtubules polymerizing

Prometaphase

-Nuclear envelope fragments


-microtubules invade nuclear area


-chromosomes condense more


-Microtubules connect to kinetochore (Specialized protein at centromere) and jerk back and forth

Metaphase

-Centrosomes at opposites ends of cell


-Creation of Metaphase plate. Chromosomes align in the exact center of two centrosomes

Anaphase

-Shortest stage


-Each chromatid becomes full choromosome


-seperase cleaves cohesion proteins


-Kinetochores are reeled in by motors



Telophase

-nuclear envelope arise from fragments of the parents cells previous one and portion of endomembrane


-Nuceoli reappear, chromosomes decondense



Cytokinesis


(Animal Cell)

Involves the formation of a cleavage furrow pinching cells in half. Making cells seperate.



Cytokinesis


(Plant Cells)

New cell wall is constructed.


Vesicles from the golgi apparatus are responsible.

Asexual reproduction

Being able to reproduce without a mate

Chromosome

The packing of DNA molecules

Chromatin

The entire complex of DNA and proteins that is the building material of chromosomes

Chromatid

one copy of a chromosome usually pair with a sister chromotid.



Sister Chromatids

Joined copies of the original chromosome.

Centromere

A region containing specific dna sequences where the two sister chromatids are attached closest

Centrosome

A region containing material that function throughout cell cycle to organize microtubules (where mitotic spindle begins)

Kinetochore

A structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at each centromere. Where microtubules attach during prometaphase

Cohesin

Enzyme that holds sister chromatids together

Motor Proteins

A motor protein pulls the chromosomes back down the microtubules towards centrosomes during anaphase. Uses atp and walks its way along

Microtubules

Long tubular structures that in the case of mitosis create mitotic spindle

Microtubule organizing center

Centrosome

Mitotic spindle

Begins to form in the cytoplasm in prophase

Somatic Cells

All cells except reproductive cells


Each contain 46 chromosomes

Gametes

Reproductive cells that have half as many chromosomes as a somatic cell.

Diploid

Any cell with two chromosome sets


Ex humans 2n=46

Haploid cell

Gamates contain a single set of chromosomes


Ex humans n=23

Cell Cycle Control System

A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle

G1 Checkpoint

In mammalian cells dubbed restriction point. If a cell gets the go ahead at G1 it usually compleates the rest of the phases

G0 phase

If it doesnt pass G1 checkpoint exits cycle and goes into nondiving state (Muscle and nerve cells)

Cyclin

Activate kinases



Kinases

(Give go ahead for G1 and G2 checkpoints)

Cyclin-dependant kinases

Acitivity rises and falls with changes in the concentration of its cyclin partner. Highest during S and G2 phase but drops during M phase

MPF/Maturation-promoting factor

Gives go ahead from G2 into M phase

Growth Factor

A protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide.

Density-dependent inhibition

Proof that external physical factors effect cell division. Says that once cells become too crowded they stop dividing. if a cell dies they fill its place.

Anchorage dependence

To divide they must be attached to a substratum, such as the inside of a culture jar or the extracellular matrix.

Cancer Cells

Cells taht do not heed the normal signals that regulate the cell cycle. They divide execessively and abundantly invading other tissues

Benign Tumor

When abnormal cells remain at the original site if they have too few genetic and cellular changes to survive in another site

Malignant tumor

Cells whose genetic and cellular changes enable them to spread to new tissues and impair the functions of one or more organs. (Cancer)

Metastisis

When cancer cells spread to distant locations from original cell site

Normal Cell Division


Reception

The target cells detection of a signaling molecule coming from outsie the cell. A chemical signal is detected when bound to receptor at cell surface

Normal Cell Division


Transduction

The binding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initiating transduction. This stage converts signal to a form that can bring specific cellular response

Normal Cell Division


Response

Specific cellular response is triggered.



Prooto-oncogenes

Code for proteins that stimulate normal cell growth and division

Oncogenes

Cancer causing gene.

Proto-Oncogene --> Oncogene



Genetic change that leads to an increase either in the amount of the proto-oncogenes protein product or in the intrinsic activity of each protein molecule


Genetic change that cause Cancer


(Point Mutation)

Point mutations happens that either in:

-Promoter or an enhancer that controls a proto-oncogene, causing an increase in its expression


-The coding sequence, changes the gene's product to a protein that is more active and resistant to degradation than a normal protein.


Genetic change that cause cancer


(Amplification her2 example)

An increase in the number of copies of the proto-oncogene in the cell through repeated gene duplication. (Chapter 21)

Tumor-supressor genes

Cells whose normal products inhibit cell division



BRCA2 and genetic testing

Helps repairs breaks that occur in both strands of DNA; One can test BRCA2 for mutations to see risk of breast cancer

p53

"guardian angel of the genome"


Tumor supressor that once oncogenes are activitated this begins transcription of the synthesis of cell cycle-inhibiting proteins.

Cell- Cycle stimulating pathway

If RAS is mutated, issues signals on its own, it cause over stimulationg of cell cycle

Cell-cycle inhibiting pathways

p53 has a missing trasncription factor and it cannot acitvate transcription of cell inhibiting proteins.

Methylation

Methylaytion causes a gene to be shut off.

Telomerase

Adds telomeres to the end of DNA so that it prevents immortality of cells by number the times a cell can divide.

Antisensing technology

Inhibits gene expression

Multistep model of cancer development

1.Loss of tumor-suppressor gene


2.Activation of mutated RAS


3.Loss of tumor supressor gene DCC


4.Loss of tumor supressor gene p53


5.Additional mutations

Chemotherapy

releases a molecule in blood that blocks the function of specific proteins. Mostly kinase proteins causing false checkpoint passes.(HER2 and tamoxifen for ERS for breast cancer)

Gametes

The vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next. Created through meiosis

Fertilization

When a female's gamete and a male's gamete join sharing DNA from each. Diploid cell

Human life Cycle

Formation of haploid gametes(meiosis)


Fertilization


Growth and development (mitosis)


Repeat

Karotype

Order of longest chromosome pair to shortest chromosome pair

Homologous Chromosomes

Two chromosomes composing a pair have the same length, centromere position, and staining patern

sex chromosomes

XX female


XY male



Autosomes

Every chromosome that is not sex chromosomes

Prophase I

-Chromosomes condense & homologs loosly pair


-Homologs connect through synaptonemal complex. Connect along long side


-Crossing over

Prophase I: Crossing over

A genetic rearrangement b/w non sister chromatids involving exchange of corresponding DNA molecules

Prophase I: Chiasmata

Homologous pairs have this X shaped region. Where crossover took place .

Late Prophase I

Spindle formation and break down of nuclear envelop.

Metaphase I

-Pairs of homologous chromosomes are now arranged at the metaphase plate


-Chromatids of one homolog are attached to kinetochore microtubules from one pole. While the other is attached to opposite pole.

Anaphase I

-Breakdown of coheision along chomatid arms allows homologs to seperate


-homologs move towards opposite poles


-

Telophase I

-Each half cell has complete haploid set of duplicated chromosomes. One or both contain region of non sister chromatin.


-Cytokinesis happens simultaneously w/ telephase I forming two daughter haploid cells.

Prophase II

-Spindle apparatus begins to form.



Metaphase II

-Chromosomes position at the metaphase plate


-Sister chromatids are not identical


-Kinetochores are attached to microtubules



Anaphase II

Break down of proteins holding the sister chromatids together at the centromere allows them to seperate



Telephase II and Cytokinesis

Nuclei form and chromosomes begin decondensing


4 haploid daughter cells are created


Genetically distinct

Genetic variation

Independent assortment of chromosomes, Crossing over, and random fertilizations



Independent Assortment of Chromosomes


(Genetic Variations)

It is a 50 50 chance that a particular daughter cell of meiosis 1 will get maternal or paternal chromosome of a homologous pair.


2^n is the equation for number of assortments

Crossing Over


(Genetic Variation)



B/C crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes, individuals carry genes derived from two different parents.

Random Fertilization


(Genetic Variation)

With 2^23 possible chromosome combination in one. When fertilization happens they are multiplied by each other (Ex 2^23*2^23)

Nondisjunction

Members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to seperate during meiosis II.

Trisomy 21

When nondisjunction happens and there will be 3 copies of Chromosome 21. Causes Down syndrome.

Garden Pea as a model organism

-Large variety


-short generation time


-large # of offspring

Law of Segregations

The two alleles for a heritable character segregate during gamet formation and end up in different gametes

Genotype

PP, pp, Pp, pP


They can be different yet show the same phenotype

Phenotype

Visible trait of an animal

Law of Independant Assortment

Alleles for one gene are sorted into gametes independantly of the alleles of other genes

Monohybrid Cross

Cross between two heterozygotes or homozygotes with one trait

Dihybrid cross

Crossing two dihybrid species. two traits

When events are independepent

multiply



When they are mutually exclusive

add

Incomplete Dominance

When crossing two things you see 2 results as a mixture of two phenotypes

Complete dominance

One allele is prevalant

CoDominance

Two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, but distinguishable ways.



Multiple Alleles

When more than one allele combination can create the same phenotype

Pleotropy

The fact the genes can affect many different phenotypes

Inheritance of dominant traits

Dominant allele diseases are less common because they are deadly therefore they rarely get passed on

Inheritance of Recessive Traits

Are more easily passed on because they can lay dormant between generations

Sex Linked genes

Male Y chromosomes have less diseases linked to them so. X linked diseases are more common so guys get screwed

Amniocentesis

Technique in fetal testing

Fermentation

Catabolic process that is the partial degradation of sugars or other organic fuels w/o oxygen

Aerobic respiration

Oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel.

Redox rxn

Oxidation -loss of an proton


reduction- Gaining of a proton

Glycolysis

Occurs in cytosol. Breaks down glucose to 3 carbon sugars then oxidized them to pyruvate.


Give 4 ATP and 2 NADH +2H aswell as 2 pyruvate molecules

Pyruvate processing

In mitochondris


1. pyruvate carboxyl group which is already oxidized is eliminated.


2.Remaining two carbon fragment is oxidized forming acetate


3.Coenzyme A is then attached to acetate forming acetyl COA which is Has great EP



Citric Acid Cycle



Pg 171 for steps


-1 atp per turn is created.


-Most chemical energy is transfered to NAD+


-Coenzymes NADH And FADH2 shuttle high e--energy electron into the electron transport chain


Makes no ATP directly just eases fall of electrons

Electron transport chain

Proteins 1-6


Each step releases a H+ ion which build up to create the H+ gradient for chemiosmosis





Complex 1

flavoprotein

complex 2

iron-sulfur protein

Q

ubiqunue



Chemiosmosis

ATP Synthase allows H+ ions to flow back down there concentration gradient and it harnesses the power motive force and phosphorylates ADP to ATP

Alcohol Fermentation

pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps.


1. releases carbon dioxide from the pyruvate; which ic converted to the two carbon compound acetaldehyd.


2.Acetaldehyd is reduced to by NADH to ethanol.


(This replenishes NAD+ for glycolysis)

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as an end product, with no release of CO2

Obligate Anaerobes

carry out only fermentation or anaerobic respiration

Facultative

yeasts and many bacteria can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration (Muscle cells)

Versatility of Catabolism

Cellular respiration can use fats, proteins, dissacharides, and polysacharides

Beta Oxidation

break fatty acids down to two-carbon fraements, which enter citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA


NADH & FADH2 are also products

Biosynthesis

Waste of glycolysis and citric acid cycle can be used in anabolic pathways.

Regulation of Cellular Respirations

Basic & Supply demand



Phosphofructokinase

Pacemaker for Cellular Respiration

Exchange in Simple-celled organisms

Simple diffusion

Simple animals

Direct exchange b/w enviroment.


Gastrovascular cavity in cnidarian


Shape


-thin and flat


-very few cell layers


-live in moist enviroment

Complex animals

Specialized exchange surfaces



Characteristics of specialized exchange surface

-Internal or external


-large surface area


Folds and branching reduce small SA to Volume ratio)


-connected to circulatory system


- thin layer of epithelial cells


-Moist (Interstitial fluid)

Mechanical vs Chemical digestion

Mechanical increases surface area for hydrolytic enzymes to chemical digest or break bonds


Salivary Glands

Secrete enzymes in saliva that break down begin the digestion of salivary amylase which breaks down starch

Mucus

Lubricates food and protects stomach from self digestion.

Peristalsis

Contraction of muscles that pushes food through digestive tract

Mechanical Digestion in stomach

Churning/peristalsis

Chemical Digestion in stomach

Gastric juice


Hcl- pH 2

Gastric Juice

Digests proteins

Hcl in stomach

-Kills bacteria


-denatures proteins


-activates protease (pepsin) which is a digestive enzyme

Digestion in Small Intestine


(Proteins and carbohydrates)

Pancreas secreates Motrypsin and trypsin, proteases in duodenum but only activated when safely in lumen

Digestion in Small Intestine


(Fats)

Bile created in the liver and stored in the gallbladder help aid the digestion of lipids.

Absorption in the Small intestine


(Carbohydrates and amino acids)



In some cases simple diffusion down gradient across epithelial layer but in most it is pumped across. It is then brought into blood stream by capillaries of villi. Then goes to liver where it is filtered and then sent out in the blood stream

Absoprtion in Small Intestine


(Fat/lipids)

1.Lipase breaks fat into its constituents and they diffuse across epithelial cell layer


2. reform into triglycerides and some are diffused right away


3. others are attachted to a phospholipid, cholesteral, or proteins.


4. lacteal transports to the lymphatic system then it joins blood



Chylomicrons

Triglycerides coated with phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Happens in fat digestion

Absorption in Large intestine

Colon, Cecum, appendix, rectum

Colon

Main job is water absorption

Cecum

Fermenting plant material in herbavores



Appendix

extension of the cecum that plays a despensable role in immunity

Feces

waste of digestive system

Rectum

Where feces are stored till they can be eliminated.

Ruminants

Deer, sheep, and cattle that have had elaborate adaption for an herbivorous diet

Evolutionary change of Small Intestine

Shorter in carnivores than herbivores

Dentition

Evolutionary change in shape and size of teeth

Endocrine System

Hormone system ment for gradual changes


Slow

Nervous System

Nerve impusles. Quick and fast ment for reaction

Negative Feedback

Reduces stimulus

Glucose Homeostasis

Insulin and glucagon tightly regulate the synthesis and breakdown of glycogen

Glucose transporter

Wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane

Diabetes

A deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues. Blood glucose levels rise but cells are unable to take up enough glucose to meet metabolic needs.

Gills

Through counter- current exchange water runs over the external gill and capillaries pick up O2 and dump CO2

Tracheal system

Air tubes that branch throughout body. insects