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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the principle energy source?


What are carbohydrates composed of?

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

in a 1:2:1 ratio

What are the three forms of carbs?

Sugars, Starch, and Fiber

What are the functions of carbohydrates?





What does glucose regulate?

Energy transformation and tissue synthesis

Brain, nervous tissue, and red blood cells

How do carbohydrates aid in production?

Stored as Glycogen in tissues

Lactose in milk

How are carbohydrates classified?

Number of carbons

Number of CHO molecules

How many CHO molecules do monosaccharides have?


Where are pentoses found?


What are two other examples of Pentoses/



What are the most abundant monosaccharides?


What type of carbohydrate is glucose?


What are the 5 common disaccharides?

1. Sucrose

2. Lactose

3. Maltose

4. Iso- Maltose

5. Cellobiose

What monosaccharides is sucrose made up of?

alpha D glucose and fructose

(table sugar)

What monosaccharides is lactose made up of?

Galactose and beta D glucose

What monosaccharides is maltose made up of?

Two alpha D glucoses

What monosaccharides is Iso- Maltose made up of

Alpha D glucoses with an alpha 1 6 linkage

What monosaccharides is Cellobiose made up of?

Two beta D glucoses

What is Raffininose made up of and where is it found?

Fructose+ alpha D glucose+ Galactose

Sugar beets, cottonseeds, and cruciferous vegies

Where are Oligosaccharides often found?


Serve as prebiotic for immune system

How many monosaccharides are in an Oligosaccharide

More than two and less than ten

What are the 4 nutritional polysaccharides?

1. Starch

2. Cellulose

3. Hemicellulose

4. Lignin

What are the three types of starches?

1. Amylose

2. Amylopectin

3. Glycogen

What is the repeating unit of Amylose?


What characterizes Amylopectin from Amylose?

Contains an iso- maltose

What is the storage form of CHO in the body?


What is the repeating unit in cellulose?


Where is cellulase produced?


What is unique about Lignin?

It is not a CHO and is indigestible by most animals and microbes

What are the first steps of digestion of carbohydrates in non ruminants?

Mastication to increase surface area

Saliva contains salivary amylase to begin breaking down amylose at the alpha 1 4 linkages.

During carbohydrate digestion in non ruminants what occurs in the stomach?

There are no CHO- digesting enzymes but acid may disrupt some of the H bonds and there is minimal microbial digestion

Once food hits the duodenum what two hormones are stimulated and what do they do??

CCK and Secretin go into the blood to turn on pancreas to initiate enzymes

During carbohydrate digestion in non ruminants what is the biggest role of the pancreas?>

Sodium bicarbonate buffer to keep enzymes alive and increase pancreatic amylase which breaks down amylose into maltose and amylopectin into maltose and isomaltose

What other enzymes are at work in the small intestines?





During carbohydrate digestion in the non ruminant what occurs in the large intestine?

There are no enzymes so microbial fermentation begins to occur working on fiber, cellulose, and hemicellulose creating volatile fatty acids

During carbohydrate digestion in the non ruminant what are the two microbial enzymes of the large intestine?

Amylase breaks down starches

Cellulase breaks down fiber

During carbohydrate digestion in the non ruminant volatile fatty acids account for what percent of energy requirements?


What are the 3 major VFAs?

Acetate- 2 C

Propionate- 3 C

Butyrate- 4 C

During ruminant digestion what is missing in the mouth?

Salivary amylase

What occurs in the rumen during carbohydrate digestion?

VFAs are produced

What are the differences in VFA production in ruminants with a forage diet and a grain diet?

More Acetate in a forage diet and neutral pH

More Propionate in a grain diet and more acidic pH and more VFA production

In a ruminant what energy percentage do VFAs offer?

Between 50 and 100%

What is unique about CCK and secretin production in ruminants?

Steady secretion

What is glycogen?

Stored form of glucose

What is glycogenesis?

Make new glycogen

What is glycogenolysis?

Breadown of glycogen

What is Gluconeogenesis?

Making new sugars from non-CHO

What is glycolysis?

Breakdown of glucose

Which animals ave high levels of glucose in the blood and why?

Poultry for quick flight energy

Which animals have low levels of glucose in the blood and why?

Cattle because they primarily utilize VFAs

What are the 3 most important hormones in regulating blood glucose levels?




Where is Insulin produced and what does it do?

Beta cells in pancrease

Stimulate glucose absorption: Decrease of glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Increase glycolysis

Where is glucagon produced and what does it do?

alpha cells in pancrease

Increase blood glucose by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis

Where is epinephrine produced and what does it do?

In the medulla of adrenal gland and it aids in breaking down muscle glycogen during the flight or fight response

What is glycogen?

The stored form of glucose

What is the major organ that synthesizes glucose?


What are the 3 catabolic systems and where do they occur?

1. Glycolysis- cytoplasm of cell

2. TCA cycle- Mitochondria

3. Electron transport chain- Mitochondria

What is the function of Glycolysis?

To breakdown glucose into 2 pyruvate

How much ATP is generated from NADH?


How much ATP is generated from FADH2?


What is glycosuria?

Abnormality of having sugars in urine

What is Polyuria?

Excessive urination

What is polydipsea?

Excessive thirst

What are symptoms of diabetes?

Hyperglycemia: High blood glucose concentrations

Glycosuria: High blood glucose in urine


High fat mobilization

High ketones

What is particular about Type I Diabetes?

Genetic disorder where the body kills off pancreatic Beta cells

What is particular about Type II Diabetes?

Defective Insulin uptake

What is occuring in the body during Gestational Diabetes?

Resistance to insulin

What is ketosis?

An excess in ketone production

What fatty acids are soluble in water?

Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate

How much more energy is in a fat than in a carb?


What are simple fats and oils composed of?

Glycerol (3C)

and Fatty Acids

What are some examples of simple fats and oils?




What are the two types of fatty acids?

Saturated- No double bonds so solid

Unsaturated- 1 or more double bonds so liquid

Which fatty acid is more chemically reactive?


What does hydrogenation mean?

Adding H (Making unsaturated fat (liquid) to saturated fat (solid))

Where does hydrogenation occur?

Food preparation


What are the three families of unsaturated Fatty Acids?




What determines what unsaturated fatty acid fits into what family?

Amount of Carbons

What are the two types of fatty acids found from animal sources?

Palmitic acid (16:0)

Stearic acid (18:0)

What are the three types of fatty acids found from plant or marine sources?

Oleic (18:1 n-9)

Linoleic (18:2 n-6)

Linolenic (18:3 n-3)

What are the three compound lipids?

1. Glycolipids

2. Phospholipids

3. Lipoproteins