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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
External Ear:

The ... and the ... collect and direct sound to the tympanic membrane

Provides a resonance boost between 2,000 and 5,000 Hz

Purpose is to ...
external auditory canal
collect the sound
Middle Ear:

Consists of the ... membrane, three ossicles (...), two muscles (... and ...), and the ligaments that suspend the ossicles in the middle ear cavity

-Transmit acoustic energy from the ... environment to the ... ear
-Serves as a mechanical ... recovering energy that would otherwise be lost as sound is transferred from air to liquid (endolymph)
malleus, incus, and stapes
tensor tympani and stapedius
Inner Ear:
Vestibular portion:

Three semicircular canals: provide information regarding ... acceleration

... and ...: provide information regarding gravitational or linear acceleration

The vestibular portion is coupled with the visual system and propriocecptive system and serves as the body’s ... system
Utricle and saccule
Inner Ear: Cochlear portion:

A fluid-filled cavity divided by the cochlear partition into three cavities (...)

With stapes displacement, the wave moves up the cochlear partition and displaces the ... membrane

Displacement of this membrane results in a shearing action of the stereocilia at the top of the one set of inner hair cells and the three sets of outer hair cells
-The inner hair cells are considered ... cells
-The outer hair cells are considered ... cells
Scala vestibuli, Scala media, Scala tympani
Inner Ear: Cochlear portion:

When the stereocilia of the inner hair cell are sheared toward the basal body of the cell, the inner hair cell ... and discharges neurotransmitters at its base and into the synaptic space with the afferent fibers of the eighth cranial nerves

Where the traveling wave reaches its peak on the cochlear partition corresponds with the frequency of the auditory stimulus (... arrangement)
-High-frequency sounds are encoded at the ... aspect of the cochlea
-Low-frequency sounds are encoded at the ... aspect of the cochlea
Tuning fork tests

Weber test:
-Normal: sound should be equal in both ears
-... hearing loss: louder in affected ear
-... hearing loss: louder in unaffected ear

Rinne test
-Normal: should hear sound twice as long through air than through bone
-... hearing loss: the individual will hear the sound longer through bone than through the air
-... hearing loss: the individual should still hear sound longer through air than bone. However, hearing will be ... for both air and bone conduction on the affected side
Formal ... is the best way to evaluate hearing

The human ear is sensitive to frequencies from 20 to 20,000 Hz

Frequencies from 300 to 3,000 Hz are important for understanding human speech

... can determine which frequencies are intact
-Pure tone
-Speech recognition
-Speech threshold
... hearing loss - Occurs when sound cannot efficiently reach the cochlea

Obstruction of the external auditory canal
-... is the most common cause
-Foreign body
-... – narrowing of ext. aud. canal

Damage to the tympanic membrane or structures of the middle ear
-Infection – middle ear infection can lead to rupture of tympanic membrane
-... (the stapes becomes fixed in the oval window)
Cerumen impaction (wax buildup)
Congenital atresia
... hearing loss - Involves a lesion at or between the footplate of the stapes to the cochlear division of the eighth cranial nerve

If the problem is in the cochlea, the hearing loss is considered ... (...)

If the problem is in the neural pathways, the hearing loss is considered ... (...)
sensory (end organ)
neural (retrocochlear)
Sensorineural: Possible etiologies:

-Viral: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, rubella
-Bacterial: syphilis, ... (probably the most common)
Noise exposure (occupational, military, loud music)
... (normal loss that occurs with aging)
Head trauma
Ototoxic medications
Neoplasm: ... (benign tumors that grow on the 8th CN)
acoustic neuroma
If you see a bilateral acoustic neuroma, think of ... (very commonly related)
neurofibromatosis type II
... hearing loss:

Thought to be much less common than conductive or sensorineural hearing loss

Pure tone audiogram is usually normal (can receive frequencies normally)

Patients usually have problems with speech recognition threshold or word recognition portions of the audiogram (problem with processing the auditory information)
Brainstem lesions:

In general, ... lesions are necessary to produce deafness

... can result from damage to inferior colliculi or superior olive
Auditory hallucinations
Central (continued)

Cortical representation of hearing is highly complex

The ... is the major auditory nucleus of the thalamus
-Sends output to the ... (transverse temporal gyri of Heschl (areas 41 and 42) and association auditory cortex (areas 22 and 52)
medial geniculate body
primary auditory cortex
Central (continued)

... deafness
-A disturbance of auditory comprehension without difficulties with visual comprehension
-Patients have fluent verbal output, severe disturbance of spoken language comprehension and repetition, and no problems with reading or writing
-Common causes: stroke or tumors
Pure word
Central (continued)

Auditory ...:
-Normal pure tone audiometry
-Inability to recognize non-verbal sounds
*... (inability to recognize music)
Central (continued)
... deafness:

A combination of word deafness and auditory agnosia

Characterized by an inability to interpret verbal and nonverbal sounds with preserved awareness of the occurrence of sound
-usually begins as sudden deafness

Typically the result of bilateral embolic strokes to the area of ...
Heschl’s gyri
Central (continued)

Auditory ...
-Consist of complex sounds such as music or speech
-Can occur as a result of brain injury to temporal lobe or brainstem structures involved in hearing
-Can occur as a result of temporal lobe seizures
-Classically seen in psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia