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88 Cards in this Set

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Human development

deals with how individuals change with time while reaminign in some respects the same

Major goals focused on by scientists who study developmental psychology

1. to describe changes that typically occur across the life span

2. to explain these changes

3. to predict developmental changes

4. to be able to use their knowledge to intervene in the course of events in order to control them

3 fundamental domains that development take place in

1. physical

2. cognitive

3. emotional social

Women's biology as a social and a political concept

we socially shape what it is except able for women to do and men with strong political power determined what it was anwas not naturally for women to do

cognitive development

involves changes that occur in mental activity including changes in perceptions in memory thought and reasoning

emotional social development

changes in individuals personality and relationships with others


takes place through metabolic processes from within( INCREASE IN NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL CELL


more or less automatic unfolding of biological potential in a set irreversible sequence( ENTAILS THE development OF INDIVIDUALS LIMBS AND ORGANS and limbs in relation to their ability to function and reflects the unfolding of genetically prescribed or preprogrammed patterns of behavior


the more or less permanent modification in behavior that results from the individuals experience in the environment( differs from maturation in that maturation occurs without any specific experience or practice . learning depends on growth and maturation which underlain peoples readiness for certain activity physical and mental

nature vs. nuture

there interaction between heredity and environment that gives an individual their unique characteristics we change ourselves through our action

Ecological approach

asserts that the study of development influences must include the persons interaction with the environment the persons changing physical and social settings the relationship among those settings and how the entire process is effected by the society in which the setting is embedde

the 4 levels of environmental influence on human development

1. microsystem


3. exosystem



the network of social relationships and physical steering in which a person is involved


interrelationships among the various settings in which the developing person is immersed


social structures that directly or indirecty affect a persons life ( mass media, government)


overarching cultural patterns of a society that are expressed in family educational, economic, political, and religious institutions


showing that there is change and constancy not only in the individual person but society was well

3 Sets of influences that mediate through the individual acting and interacting to produce development

1. normative age graded influences( puberty)

2. normative history grade influences( war economic)

3. non normative life events ( birth divorce death)

age cohort

a group of persons born in the same time interval

how age operates as a referance point in helping people establish their identity

age operates directly with driving drinking, voting

- indirectly- with being able to bare children

- is a master status a change in age accompanies most changes in role over a persons life span- getting into school getting jobs getting marries

Cultural variability-

comparing the cultural practices of different society

Ways in which childhood in th US has changed over the past 200 years

-school enrollments have risen

-as mothers work more, children spend more time in day care centers

- child labor laws

5 steps of scientific method

1. select reserchable problem

2. formulate a hypothesis

3. test hypothesis

4. draw conclusions about hypothesis

5. make the findings of the study available to the scientific community

longitudinal studies

- studies the same individual at different points in life

-enables researchers to describe changoffers insight as to why peole develop differently

- cannot control non normative events, time consuming, costly

Cross sectional

- compares different groups of people of different ages at the same point

- less costly and time consuming

- confounding age cohort ( can't be sure if age differences aren't a product of other differences between groups


- measures more than one age cohort over time

- over comes problem of age cohort

-costly and complex to analyze over time

Experimental design

- measure whether a variable ( X) is one of the factors that causes or does not cause characteristic ( Y ) to occur

control group-

should be identical to the experimental group except that they will not be administered the independent variable while they perform the same tasks as experimental group

experimental group-

are administered the independent variable

independent varible

(x) the factor that is under study and is manipulated in an experiment

dependent variable

some measure of the participants behavior ( the factor that is effected

case study method

a longitudinal design that focuses on a single individual rather than on a group of subjects ( accumulation of developmental information

- difficult to generalize data from individual

- familiarity of research and subject compromises objectivity

Social survey method

- survey of a sample of individuals

-low response rate

-bias- give answers they thick researchers want to hear

naturalistic oberservation method

- intensive observation of the behavior of peole in their natural setting

- lack of control

- no independent vairbale

-bias ober servers presence can late behavior, may look for certain behaviors

cross cultural method

-compares data from two or more societies or cultures

- variabilty in quality of data

- research questions may not be applicable

-seldom provides information on individual differences

correlational analysis

the type of analysis allows us to quantify the association or relationship in terms of strength and direction( does not prove causation but can be used for predictive purposes

Correlation coefficient

the numerical expression of the degree or extent of relationship between two variables or conditions

2 guidelines followed when doing research on humans

1. informed consent ( must tell risks and benefits)

2. right to privacy


a set of interrelated statements that provides an explanation for a class of events

psychoanalytic theory

the view that personality is fashioned progressively as the individual passes through various psychosexual stages

Frued and the role of the unconscious

-unconscious motivation- stemming from impulses burred below our awareness

- are driven out by our unscious awareness

Frueds 5 psychosexual stages

1. oral

2. anal

3. phallic


5. genital


-birth to 18 months

- pleasurable body zones: mouth lips tongue

pleasurable activity: sucking biting

- source of conflict: terminating breast feeding


-18 months- 3 years

- pleasure body: anus, rectum, bladder

-pleasurable activity: expelling urine and feces, retaining urine and feces

- source confluct: potty training


- 3-7

- pleasure body: genitals

- pleasure activity:masturbation

- boys Oedipal- want mom hate dad

- girls Electra hate mom want dad


-middle childhoodsupress equal feelings get involve on sports games friendship


sexual reawakening

psychosocial ( Erikson

- development of the person within a social context

9 stages of psychosocial development

trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. identity confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generatively vs. stagnation, integrity vs. despair, hope and faith vs. despair

trust vs. mistrust

- infancy- 1

-come ot trust or mistrust themselves and others

- favored outcome: develop trust in self, parents, and the world

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

- 2-3

-with increased mobility decide whether to asset their will

- favored outcome: develop snes of self control without loss of self esteem

Initiative vs. inferiority

- 6 to puberty

-are curious and manipulate objects

-learn diction and purpose in activities

Identity vs. identity confusion


- who am I?

-develop a coherent sense of self and ego identity

intimacy vs. Isolation

-Early adulthood

-are able to reach out and connect with others

-become intimate with someone and work toward career

Generativity vs. stagnation

-midde adulthood

-look beyond self to embrace society and future generations

-begin family, develop concern for those outside of family

Integrity vs. despair

-late adulthood

-take stock of ones past

-get sense of satisfaction from looking at past

hope and faith vs. despair

-ver old age

-face new sense of self over failing bodies and need for care

- achieve a new sense of wisdom and transcendance

behavioral theory

concerned with the observable behavior of people what they actually so and say


separated behavior into units


separated the environment into units

classical conditioning

a process of stimulus substitution in which a new previously neutral stimulus is substituted in which a new previously neutral stimulus is substituted for the stimulus that naturally elicits a response

operant conditioning

type of learning in which the consequences of behavior change the strength of that behavior

-operants: behaviors that are susceptible to control by changing the effects that follow them

behavior modification

allies learning theory and experimental psychology to the problem of altering maladaptive behavior

humanistic psychology

maintains that humans are different from all other organisms in that they actively intervene in the course of events to control their destinies and shape the world around them

self actualized

the need to realize ones unique potential to the fullest

Maslows Hierarchy of needs

1.(bottom) fundamental needs: (physiologicalsatisfy hunger, thirst and sex drives

-safety needs: feel secure, safe and out of danger

2. Psychological needs: belonging

-esteem needs

3. self actualization: need to fulfill unique potential

cognitive theory

sequential periods in growth or maturing of an individuals ability think to gain knowledge self awareness and awareness of the environment


cognitive structures that people construct to deal with their environment

two types of adaptation

assimilation, accomodation


the process of taking in new information and interpreting it so that it conforms to a currently held model of the world


observation do not fit their current schemas


the recess of changing ones schema to make it better match the world of reality


balance between the process of accommodation and assimilation

Piagets Cognitive stages

1. Sensorimotor

2. Preoperational

3. concrete

4. formal


- birth-2

-infants discover relationship between sensations and motor behavior

object permanence



-capacity to employ symbols particularly langiage

-Egocentrism- able to take others view points

Concrete operational


-ability to conserve quantity ( pour water

-able to conserve weigth length mass area

formal operational

-11- older

- abstract thinking

-can engage in scientific thought

cognotive learning

-human capacity to use symbols affords us a powerful means for comprehending and dealing with our environment; they allow us to represent events analyze our experience and communicate with others; plan create and imagine and engage ion foresight of action

sociocultural theory

the development of an individual is determined by the activity of groups child will assimilate the social aspects of the activity and take that information and internalize it

Bronfenbrenners D=f(PE) where D= development and f = function

ecological theory that centers on the relationship between the developing individual and 4 expanding levels of changing environment from home and family ti the broader cultural context

eclectic approach( model of human development)

allows them to elect from among all the various theories and models whatever aspects provide the best fit for the descriptive and analytical tasks at hand

mechanistic ( model of human development) (continuity)

analogous to the growth of a leaf change is gradual and uninterrupted

organismic ( model of human development)( discontinuity)

human development like process of human metamorphosis individual passes through sequence of stages in which change constitutes a difference in a kind rather than merely in degree. Each stage characterized by unique state in ego formation identity or thought

Sandra Scarr believes genetic predispositions tailor to environment in 3 ways

1. passive relationship: parent gives favorable ( or unfavorable)genes and environment to the development of a particular capablility

2. Evocative relationship: a child evokes responses from others because of childs genetically influenced behavior

3. active relationship: children seek out environment that they find compatible with them

behavioral genetics

focuses on individual differences and seek out answers to why individuals within a species exhibit different behaviors

releasing stimuli

babaies have characteristics of cuteness that induce others to want to pick them up and cuddle them

critical period( sensitive period)

imprinting can only take place at this period ( process of attachment