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113 Cards in this Set

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What are the eight specialized functions of cells

movement, conductivity, metabolic absorbtion, secretion, excretion, respiration, reproduction, and communication


aids in cell division and controls of genetic information, contains DNA.


RNA protein complexes, float freely in cytoplasm, provide sites for cellular protein synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Specializes in synthesis and transport of the protein and lipid components of most of the cells organelles; also protein folding and sensing cell stress

Golgi Complex

A network of smooth membranes and vesicles located near the nucleus; processes and packages proteins into secretory vesicles


Digest and remove waste, digest debris from dead cells


Cellular respiration and pathway for energy production (ATP)


"bones and muscles of the cell, maintains shape and allows movement.

Prevents water soluble molecules from entering cells across the plasma membrane

Phospholipid bilayer


uncharged; water fearing


charged; water loving

Plasma membrane

Impermeable to most water-soluble molecules, but allows lipid-soluble molecules (o2/Co2) and uncharged particles such as H2o, Co2, and urea to diffuse it readily


contain no organelles; cyanobacteria, bacteria, and rickettsia


"good nucleus," ;layer with intracellular anatomy; animals

Passive transport

no-energy transport of uncharged molecules through any semi-permeable barrier; ex. H2o and Co2 diffusing readily across plasma membrane


Movement of a solute molecule from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration


Movement of H2o and solute through a membrane b/c of a greater pushing pressure on one side of the membrane


Movement of H2o down a concentration gradient, across a semi-permible membrane from a regions of higher concentration to lower concentration

Active Transport

The protein transporter moves molecules against, or up, the concentration gradient. Requires the expenditure of ATP and bigger molecules suchs a protein, ions, large cells, and complex sugars


A section of the plasma membrane enfolds substances from outside the cell, invaginates (folds inward), and separates from the plasma membrane, forming a vesicle that moves into the cell.


Cell drinking; involves the ingestion of fluids and solute molecules through formation of small vesicles


Cell eating; involves the ingestion of large particles, such as bacteria, through formation of large molecules


Secretion of macromolecules; helps replace portions of the plasma membrane; also releases molecules synthesized by the cells into the ECF

Endocrine Signaling

A form of cellular communication; remote signaling by secreted molecules (hormones) in the blood to remote cells

Paracrine Signaling

A form of cellular communication; secretion of local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up and immobilized. Contact signaling by plasma membrane molecules.

Synaptic Signaling

A form of cellular communication; secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized junctions call the chemical synapse. Contact signaling via specialized junctions.


The second phase of cellular energy production, following digestion. A glucose molecule is split and two ATP molecules are formed through oxidation

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Occurs in the mitochondria; process by which energy is transferred into ATP


The reproduction of somatic cells; nuclear division followed by cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division); asexual

The result of mitosis

2 genectically identical daughter cells from 1 parent


Cellular reproduction of a germ cell; involves 2 fissions of the nucleus; sexual

The result of meiosis

four gametes (sex cells)


Lack of sufficient oxygen

Most common cause of cellular injury



reduced blood supply

The most common cause of hypoxia


Process of cell death caused by ischemia

1. Insufficient o2 and glucose create a situation where the cell cannot produce adequate energy

2. There is an influx of Na and Cl into the cell

3. H2o is drawn in and the cell swells

4. There is an influx of Ca

5. The mitochondria are destroyed and the cell is then unable to produce energy

Effects of cell death

1. Irreversible and inevitable

2. Cell swells and bursts

3. Free radicals are released

4. The inflammatory process is activated

Free radicals

Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having unpaired electrons, looks to steal other electrons, causing domino effect

Chemical injury

Begins with a biochemical interaction between a toxic substance and the cells plasma membrane, ultimately damaged, leading to increased permeability

Hypothermic injury

Intial vasoconstriction with paralysis of vasomotor control leading to vasodilation

Results of hypothermic injury

1. Increased membrane permeability

2. Cellular swelling

3. Increased blood viscosity

4. Ischemic injury

Hyperthermic injury

Burn; tissue is destroyed; injury depends on extent of injury and how many layers are involved

Partial thickness injuries

Capillary dilation and increased loss of protein-rich fluid (redness,swelling, and blistering)

Full thickness injuries

Extensive loss of fluid and plasma proteins. Cellular regeneration is not possible, so grafting is needed to protect and heal.

Coagulative Necrosis

Caused from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia. Protein denaturation causes protein albumin to change from a gelatinous, transient state, to a firm, opaque state

Liquefactive Necrosis

Results from ischemic injury to the neurons and glial cells in the brain.

Liquefactive Necrosis

Self digestion leads to liquid which is encapsulated in cyst and abcesses

Caseous Necrosis


Caseous Necrosis

A combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis. The dead cells degenerate but the debris is not digested completely.

Fat Necrosis

Cellular death that mainly occurs in pancreas, breasts, and other abdominal structures

Coagulative Necrosis

Cellular death that mainly occurs in the heart, kidneys, and adrenal glands

Fat Necrosis

Caused by lipase. Lipases breaks down triglycerides, releasing free fatty acids, which then combine with Ca, Mg, and Na., creating opaque and chalk white soaps.

Gangreous Necrosis

Death of tissue resulting from severe hypoxic injury

Dry gangrene

Result of coagulative necrosis;dry, brown or black

Wet gangrene

Develops when neutrophils invade the site, causing liquefactive necrosis; site is cold, swollen, and black with foul odor.

Gas gangrene

Due to infection by clostridium; can lead to death if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBC's destroying their oxygen carrying capacity.


Cellular dropping off; cellular self destruction


Reduction in cell size; may be caused by disuse, decreased hormone stimulation, or reduction in blood supply


Increase in cell size due to increase workload; ex. muscle


Increase in cell number due to an increase in cell division; ex. monthly hyperplasia of endometrium, callus


Abnormal changes in size, shape, and organization of mature cells.


Reversible replacement of one mature cell by another, often less differentiated cell type


Abnormal growth of tissues, a tumor forms.

Compensatory Hyperplasia

An adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate.

Contains 2/3 of body's H2o


Conatins 1/3 of body's H2o


The sodium potassium pump maintains balance of _____ inside cells and _____ outside of cells by active transport.


Hydrostatic pressure

Arterial side of capillaries; pressure in capillaries is greater than pressure in the interstitial space


Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space

An increase in hydostatic pressure can be caused by:

Venous obstruction or salt and water retention; ex. CHF, kidney failure, thrombophlebitis, tight clothes, prolonged sitting

A decrease in plasma proteins yields

A decrease in osmotic pressure, fluid release in the interstitial space; ex. malnutrition, burn injury, liver disease

Primary factors in regulation of thirst

A secretion of ADH and perception of thirst

What intiates the thrist mechanism

osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus

Most common causes of a hypertonic cellular alterations

1. Hypernatremia

2. reduction in ECF H2o (hypovolemia)

Causes of hypernatremia

1. Increased Aldosterone (Cushing's syndrome)

2. Excessive water loss r/t diarrhea, polyuria, and profuse sweating

3. Intracellular dehydrationoccurs

Treatment for hypernatremia

Isotonic IV fluid (D5 in H2o)

Hypernatrima s/s

1. Urine specific gravity <1.030

2. Hematocrit and plasma proteins will be elevated

3. Na <146

Most common causes of hypotonic cellular alterations

1. Hyponatremia

2. Water excess

Causes of hyponatremia

Pure sodium deficits; ex. diarrhea, vomitting, gi suction, diuretics, SIDH, failure of distal tubules to reabsorb Na, and burns

Treatment for hyponatremia

Fluid restriction and possible hypertonic solution of saline

S/S of hyponatremia

1. Behavioral and neurological changes, wt gain, edema, ascites, pulmonary edema, and JVD.

2. Urine specific gravity >1.010

3. Na >135


1. Seen with hypernatremia and plasma HCo3 deficits

2. No s/s, treat underlying cause


1. Occurs with hyponatremia or an elevated HCo3

2. Seen with cystic fibroids, use of diuretics, and vomitting

3. Treat underlying cause

Causes of hypokalemia

Increased aldosterone, diuretics, diarrhea, vomitting, NG suction, Addison's disease, and alkalosis.

Causes of hyperkalemia

Oral or IV KCL, nutritional substitues, salt substitues, decreased aldosterone

S/S of hypokalemia

Renal function impaired, neuromuscular excitability is decreased causing skeletal muscle weaknes= smooth muscle atony and dsyryhtmias.

S/S of hyperkalemia

Muscle weakness, cramps, numbess, parethesis, N/D, abdominal distention, confusion, and arrythmias

Treatment for hypokalemia

IV potassium at 20 mEq/L

Treatment for hyperkalemis

IV calcium, insulin, D50, albuterol, dialysis

Predominant ICF ion, major influence on the regulation of ICF osmolarity, fluid balance, and ICF electrical neutrality


90% of ECF cations, combined with Cl, HCo3, and Na regulates EC osmotic forces and therefore regulates H2o balance.


S/S of hypocalcemia

Caused by an increase in neuromuscular excitability, paresthesis of the mouth and digits, capoedal syndrome, larygyospasm, hypereflexion, seizures, dysrhthmias, when severe convulsions, tetany, and death

Twitch of the nose or lip when temple is tapped

Chvostek sign

Contraction of hands and fingers after radial artery is occluded for 5 min.

Trousseau Sign

Causes of hypercalcemia

Hyperparathyroidism, bone mets with calcium reabsorption, sarcoidosis, and excess Vitamin D

S/S of hypercalcemia

Cause by a decrease of neuromuscular excitability, fatigu, weak, lethargy, anorexia, block, bradycardia, confusion

Treatment for hypocalcemia

Give IV calcium gluconate, PO CA, and decrease Ph intake

Treatment for hypercalcemia

Treat underlying cause, large amounts of NS, corticosteroids, and cytotoxic drug mithramycin

Plasma membrane stability and permability are directly r/t ______ ions.


Ex. transmission of nerve impulses and contarction of muscles

Decrease ph, normal or decreasing PO2, decrease HCO3; seen with Diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, starvation, hypoxia with lactic acid buildup, physical exertion w/o adequate caloric intake

Metabolic acidosis

Incresed ph, normal or increasing PO2, increase HCO3; seen with vomitting, NG suction

Metabolic alkalosis

Decreased ph, increase CO2, and normal or increasing HCo3; seen with emphysema, narcosis, and respiratory arrest

Respiratory acidosis

Increased ph, decreased Co2, normal or decreasing HCo3; seen with hyerventilation, salicylate toxicity, pain, panic, or neurogenic disorders

Respiratory alkalosis

The difference between primary measured cations (Na+ and K+) and primary measured anions (Cl- and HCo3-)

Anion Gap (The magnitude of difference helps identify causes of metabolic acidosis)

Posess contact inhibtion, controlled growth with a limited life span, uniform size and shape, normal chromosomes, perform apoptosis

Normal cell

Lack contact inhibtion, uncontrolled growth, immortal, anaplasia, loss of organization, abnormal chromosomes, no apoptosis

Cancer cell

Describe the 6 hallmarks of cancer

1. Self sufficiency in growth signals, do not need external signals to multiply

2. Insensitivity to anti-growth signals

3. Avoid apoptosis

4. Limitless replicative potential

5. Sustained angiogenesis

6. Tissue invasion and metasis


Process by which BV are formed

Most common cancers associated with children

Leukemia and Brain

Risks associated with childhood cancer

prenatal exposure, exposure in utero, breast milk contents before conception

Basic units of inheritance, composed of sequences of DNA


Double helix polymer, a long molecule composed of 4 nucleotides, during replication the molecule splits and each half forms a mirror of itself, yielding two new molecules