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76 Cards in this Set

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Microorganisms that live on or inside the body

Drugs are given to influence this.

Additional bacteria is transferred from healthy patients to unhealthy ones.

The organization of the body






Organ systems



Body of water % in the body

60 %

3 types of body fluid. Describe each

Interstitial , surrounds cells and doesn’t circulate

Plasma , water portion of the body that circulates in the blood vessel

Transcellular , cerebral spinal fluid and lymph fluid that both circulate

Inner play traincell

4 types of Tissues in the body





Tissues are for C MEN

characteristics for epithelial tissues

Lines the body cavity and Forms glands

Can be Covered with mucous and Produce secretions

Helps Transport and is Avascular ( no blood cells)

Made mostly of cells which most go under regular mitosis

My skin is sweaty and epithelial

Connective tissue characteristics

(Blood: )

Made by cells and extra cellular matrix

Enclosed and separate tissues


(Bone, cartilage, immune system)

Support and framework



Storage and insulation

We are to connective, we are (BBF)s

6 types of Connective Tissue





Loose CT

Fibrous CT

FLABBC connective tissues

Two types of fluid and percentage

And body weight percentage


Intracellular 40% 2/3

Extracellular 20% 1/3

More fluid in the cell

Connective tissue is made up of

Cells and matrix

Matrix has protein fibers and ground substance

Need these to build a bone

Ground substance in connective tissue

Hydroxyapatite made up of calcium and phosphorus

Ca P

Protein fibers in connective tissue

Collagen and elastin


the net movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration due to randomized molecule motion

namethree factors that may influence the rate of diffusion

factors can be temperature, size, surface area and concentration gradient

Describethree characteristics of carrier mediated transport and what is its function

competition, specificity, concentration

it is a form of active transport that moves ions and large polar molecules across the membrane

Namethe major intracellular and extracellular anions and cations

intracellular is potassium K cations and protien anions

extracellular is sodium Na cations and chloride anions

Whatis the action of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump? What important roledoes it play in the membrane potential

the pump moves 2 potassium in and three sodium out

role is that it creates a concentration gradient electrical gradient

State the action ofthe enzyme adenyl cyclase.

the production of cAMP from ATP

Identifythe way in which gated membrane channels are controlled

can be chemically , voltage, mechanically, phosphorylation gated

.Predict the effect of reducing extracellular K+ concentration on theresting membrane potential.

more potassium will flow outside the cell making the cell become more negative. the cell voltage differential can be more hyperpolarized

Distinguishbetween osteoblasts osteoclasts and osteocytes.

all these are bone cells

osteoblasts primary function is to build bone

Osteoclasts function is to break down bone

these two make up the BMU

the osteocytes are dormat bone cells

Assumea cell is placed in a beaker of fluid that is hypotonic to the intracellularfluid. On a graph plot the change in cell volume over time.

the water in the beaker will move into the cell and the cell volume will expand to balance the concentration ratio. it is possible for the cell to be lysed.

Assume a cell is placed in a beaker of fluid that is hypertonic to the intracellular fluid. On a graph plot the change in cell volume over time.

the water inside the cell will move into the solution around the cell. this can cause the cell to shrivel and crenation occurs. cell volume decreases to a certain point

Assume a cell is placed in a beaker of fluid that is isotonic to the intracellular fluid. On a graph plot the change in cell volume over time.

the cell volume will stay the same because there is no difference in the concentration of the fluid in the cell and out of the cell

Differentiatebetween plasma, transcellullar and interstitial fluid

these are all the fluids of the body. Plasma is the water portion of the body that circulates in the blood vessel

Transcellular fluid is the fluid in the spinal cord and cerbral fluid (CNS) that circulates

Interstitual fluid, is the fluid found around the cells that does not circulate

Name3 characteristics of epithelial cells

lines the body cavity

and forms glands

manages body temperature

produces mucous

is avascular and is made mostly of cells

think basic skin cells

Name3 functions of skin

barrier/ protection

temperature regulation

pigment and protection

resynthesizes vitamin D

sensory receptors

think values of skin

Differentiate between action potentials andgraded potentials

both are caused by changes in the voltage diffrential in the cell

gated potential can be depolarized or hyperpolarized while action potentials are anly depolarized

graded potentials are conducted decrementally but action potentials are not but do have a refractory period where the gates/ channels are unresponsive

graded potentials are dependent on the opening of chemically gated ion channels while action potentials are dependent on the opening of voltage gated action potential

What is the status of a voltage gated sodiumchannel during the absolute refractory period versus during the relativerefractory period

during the absolute refractory period, another action potential can not be generated but in the relative refractory period it is possible to generate another action potential. in the absolute period the sodium channels are either open or closed and unresponsive while in the relative the sodium channel is closed and responsive

In what part of a neuron is there apredominance of chemically gated ion channels?

in the dendrite area right before the axon hilloc

In what part of a neuron is there apredominance of voltage gated ion channels?

in the axon and terminal buttons, anywhere below the axon hilloc

Identify types of neuroglia and describe afunction of each.

in the CNS

1. actrocytes- surround blood vesels in capillaries ( star shapes)




In the PNS


and satellites

Astrology, micro oligiodenology ependymalogy study satellites, and swans

types of neurons and indicate where each may befound

unipolar- are all afferent neurons

multipolar- all efferent neurons that are more common

bipolar -found in special organs

Distinguish between action potentialpropagation in an unmyelinated neuron and a myelinated neuron.

saltitory conduction happens as the action potential travels alon a mylenated axon from areas of unmylennated portions called nodes of ranvier

Name all the ions channels that are open duringthe after potential

potassium and sodium is closed but responsive

Name all the ions channels that are open duringthe depolarization


Name all the ions channels that are open duringthe repolarization


Describe the eventsthat take place when an action potential reaches the terminal button at achemical synapse.

voltage open calcuim channels

calcium rushes into the cell and tags the synaptotagmins on the NT vessicles. the vessicle protiens syaptotagmins and synaptobrevin attach to synataxin and snaps respectively . neurotransmitters are released out of the presynaptic cell

Identify the means by which norepinephrine isremoved from the synapse.


Assume a synapse is cholinergic and generatesIPSPs. If acetylcholinesterase was inhibited how would that affect the activityof the post-synaptic neuron.

decrease in inhibitions less Cl inters into the post synaptic neuron

name the opiod peptides and their corresponding receptors

enkephins to delta

endorphins to mu

dymorphins to kappa

kappa dymonds

mure endorphins

delta enkephants

what are the characteristics of the Gluterminergic Synapse;




NT Glutamate

dominant excititory NT in the CNS

receptors are AMPA-Kianate

and NDMA

what are the characteristics of the Gabaminergic Synapse; Neurotransmitter,




dominant inhibitory synapse in the CNS

receptors are Gaba channel receptors

what is Acetylcholinesterase

removes neurotransmitters from the synapse

What is osmosis

the movements of water from an area of low concentration to high concentration

types of carrier mediated transport

active transport and facilitated diffusion

State the action of the enzyme guanyl cyclase.

the production of cyclic GMP from GTP

What is crenation

what occurs to a cell that is in a hypertonic solution and shrivels up

Name the two types of membrane proteins

Peripheral and integral proteins

Name the type of membrane junction that prevent paracellular transport

Tight junction

Name the three types of membrane junction molecules

Describe each

Gap junctions- pats and transcellular interactions can happen because cell membranes are connected , desmosomes- hold cells atsites of stretching both para and transcellular transport, tight junctions - only transcellular transport

What happens to the diffusion when you increase the concentration gradient

The rate of diffusion increases

Three types of carriers proteins

Uniport symport antiport

Define endocytosis and 3 the types



Receptor mediated endocytosis

Second messengers

Cyclic amp and gmp

Functions of the skeletal system





Blood cell formation

Organization of collagen fibers

Lamellar sheets and woven fibers

Matrix types

Compact bone and spongy bone

Epidemic cells






Burn damage

Rule of nines

Neurotransmitters Removal mechanisms

Enzymes degradation MAO and COMT

Reuptake : neurotransmitters are taken back into the presynaptic cell

Describe the neuropinephrine andrenergic synapse



Examples of NTs

Adrenaline Receptors are Alpha and Beta

Can be EsPs and ISPS

excitatory in organs like the heart and inhibitory like in the digestive system

Enzymes break it down


What are the catecholamines

Dopamine -norepinephrine - epinephrine

Describe cholonergic synapse

NT is acetylcholine (ACH)

receptors are

Muscarnic and Nicotinic

Removal is acetylcholinesterase

What is down regulation and up regulation e

Regulation is the change in receptors on the membrane. Down regulation is the decrease in receptors and up regulation is the increase in receptors

Cells that can change their resting state

Excitable cells using sodium potassium pump, leaky channels , and gated ion channels

Describe serotonin

Works with many psychoactive drugs

Plays a role in sleep

Uses the reuptake method

SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Dopaminergic synapse

NT is dopamine

Receptors are D1,D2, .....

Removal is MAO and COMT


Tripartite synapse involve which cells

Presynaptic neuron

Post synaptic neuron


What does an astrocyte do in the cell

Removes neurotransmitters and regulates ion concentration

Parts of the central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

Part of the peripheral nervous system

Cranial nerves and spinal nerves

What is the somatic nervous system

Relays signals to the skeletal system

Things we need to move

What is the automatic nervous system

Relays information to the glands smooth muscle and cardiac muscles (organs )


Special junction between the neuron and neuron or gland or muscle.

What does the first action potential create

The first action potential creates a current sink.