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50 Cards in this Set

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***** Robert Tryon bred two strains of rats based on their "errors" in a maze. Over a number of generations, the difference in "error" rates between the two strains grew greater and greater. Why was it a mistake to label (and think of) these rats as "bright" and "dull"? Propose a more appropriate set of labels for the two strains of rats.

The labels "bright" and "dull" suggest that it was some rather general intelligence that was being selected for, when, in fact, it was a very specific behavior--more or less turning--in a specific maze. The researchers assumed that not moving as quickly and directly as possible to the food reward was indicative of less intelligence (rather than, as plausibly, indicative of more or less tendency to explore). Subsequent research found, in fact, that the supposedly "dull" rats did just as well or better than the "bright" rats on other learning tasks. So better labels would be much more precise descriptions of the behavior, without introducing assumptions about the underlying psychology. For example, "Low-turners" and "High-turners."

A __________ experimental design is one in which neither the experimenters nor subjects know who has been assigned to the control group and the experimental group.

double-blind

***** Why are the results of Dutton and Aron's "Scary Bridge" study a problem for Introspectionism?

Valid introspection on our mental processes relies on the notion that the motivations of our behavior are available to consciousness. The scary bridge study demonstrated that heightened fearfulness resulted in men making more phone calls to the female researcher, an influence on their behavior of which they were not conscious. It is unlikely that these men would have accurately introspected and identified this heightened fear as the cause of their phoning behavior.

The ___________ nervous system, which is one part of the autonomic nervous system, prepares the body for action.

sympathetic

***** Neuroscientists have recently discovered in humans and in some nonhuman primates organized systems of neurons that facilitate imitation. They are referred to as _________ neurons.

mirror

The process of reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior is known as ________ .

shaping

***** The __________ connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

corpus callosum

There are two major fallacies that tend to crop up in thinking about the influence of evolution and genes on our behavior. Name them and briefly describe them.

Deterministic fallacy: the idea that our behavior is basically set--determined--by our genes and there's little difference made by the environment.


Naturalistic fallacy: the idea that evolved traits or behaviors must be morally correct, must reflect the "proper" state of nature.

***** Explain why a study with 40 genetically-identical mice raised in an identical, very interesting, stimulating environment, supports UVa professor Eric Turkheimer's theory of why identical twins often do not end up with identical personalities.

Turkheimer's idea is that small, random events that happen to one twin but not the other, sometimes start in motion different behavioral feedback loops, resulting in the development of different personalities over time. The study with mice is important because it controlled the genetics--all identical, just like human twins--and it controlled the environment by raising them all in the same, spacious cage, so they could not have been systematically treated differently. Still, the mice did not all end up with the same "personalities"; e.g., they varied in how much exploratory behavior they displayed, apparently because of random different experiences with their early exploratory attempts.

It is called _____________ when animals show a conditioned response not just to the original conditioned stimulus, but also to new stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus.

generalization

Kristen continues to break her curfew, so her parents decide to take her cell phone away for 2 weeks. In the language of operant conditioning, what would this type of disciplinary approach be called?

negative punishment

*****According to the empiricists, the most basic operating principle of mental processes is the law of __________ .

association by contiguity

What are two key pieces of evidence supporting the idea that many human emotional facial expressions are examples of species-typical behaviors?

Universality: people in very different cultures, including ones with little contact with others, make and recognize the same basic emotional expressions identified by Ekman and Friesen.People blind from birth make the same expressions, indicating that the expressions are biologically-prepared and not learned by observation.

The two broad theories that explain altruistic behavior, ultimately, in terms of self-interest are __________ and ___________ .

kin selection theory




reciprocity theory

Robert Trivers theorized that differences between species in courtship and mating patterns could be largely explained by sex differences in ____________ .

parental investment

Adolescents should not be held to the same standards as a 30-year old when it comes to taking responsibility for poor planning or decision making. This is because the _________ lobe, which controls the ability to plan and synthesize information, does not fully develop until the mid-20s.

frontal

The ____________ facilitates the electrical transmission of axons. Deterioration of these structures has been implicated in multiple sclerosis.

myelin sheath

A coffee shop gives customers a free coffee coupon after they buy 10 coffees. This is an example of a ______ ______ schedule of reinforcement.

fixed ratio

In the video clip from “The Office”, Dwight’s behavior of reaching for the Altoid is an example of operant conditioning; Dwight’s dry mouth after the sound of the computer is an example of _________ conditioning.

operant, classical/pavlovian

The ________ is referred to as a “relay station” that receives and routes sensory input.

thalamus

***** Assume you have a set of scores on some variable. What does the standard deviation tell us? Explain in simple, but concrete, practical terms.

Each score has a deviation--the difference between it and the mean for the group of scores. A standard deviation is basically the average deviation, the average amount that scores on the variable, measured for some group, differ from the mean for that group.

what kind of a study design is the comparison of facial photos and a photo of a small patch of skin?

correlational

Neonate mimicry of adult tongue protrusion is consistent with the ideas of __________

Immanuel Kant

what didRescorla demonstrate?

A conditioned stimulus becomes only a predictor of the unconditioned stimulus. That is, it does not become intrinsically feared or desired just like the original unconditioned stimulus.

Functionalist explanations (specifying survival and reproductive adaptiveness) for particular behaviors or traits may not always be necessary. What are three viable non-functionalist explanations for the existence of some traits?

traits are vestigial




traits survive just by chance




traits are by-products of natural selection for other traits

Which historical "school" of philosophy or psychology is most consistent with Scott and Fuller’s findings about fearfulness in basenji and cocker spaniel dogs?

nativist

The Literacy Digest’s poll of U.S. voters in 1936 failed to predict the presidential election. The Digest’s poll showed Alfred Landon would beat Franklin D. Roosevelt in the election, but it turned out that Roosevelt won by a landslide. This failure of prediction was due to:

Biased samples

Which of the following measures of a variable's central tendency is most affected by outliers?A.quartile


B.mean


C.median


D.mode

mean

The bridge study conducted by Dutton and Aron was a quasi-experiment. What change would be necessary in order to turn this study into a true experiment?

Randomly assign male participants to the scary bridge condition or the safe bridge condition.

Greenwald et al. (1991) studied the effects of audiotapes that were claimed to subliminally improve either memory or self-esteem. Greenwald randomly assigned participants to listen to a tape that was labeled as either memory- or self-esteem enhancing, regardless of what the supposed content was. What does the graph of the results if Greenwald measured participants' perceptions of their self-esteem improvement look like? (Words in each bar indicate the supposed content of the tape)

what numbers indicate a perfect correlation?

-1 and 1

Which of the following is NOT true for Descartes’s version of dualism?


A. Human thoughts derive from the brain.


B. Reflexes illustrate that bodily movements can occur without the soul.


C. The soul is a non-material entity.


D. The soul acts on the body at a particular location in the brain.

A. Human thoughts derive from the brain.

Which of these general modern understandings of mental functioning were demonstrated by Broca's and Wernicke’s work on aphasias? [Select all that are correct]


A. Physical basis of mental functioning


B. Long-term potentiation


C. Contralateral organization


D. Modularity of brain function

A. Physical basis of mental functioning




D. Modularity of brain function

Which of the following would most likely produce the strongest classical conditioning?


A. The potential conditioned stimulus follows the unconditioned stimulus.


B. The potential conditioned stimulus occurs both before the unconditioned stimulus and also at other times.


C. The potential conditioned stimulus only occurs just before the unconditioned stimulus.


D. The potential conditioned stimulus is added to an already established conditioned stimulus.

C.The potential conditioned stimulus only occurs just before the unconditioned stimulus.

Which of these was a flaw in the "Ankle-Shoulder Squeeze" experiment we conducted in class? [Select all that are flaws]


A. Five trials in each condition instead of simply one per condition.


B. Participants were aware of the hypothesis.


C. The same participants were in each condition.


D. Participants' eyes being closed.


E. Experimenter controlled the measurement of time.


F. One order of conditions: ankle squeezing first, shoulder squeezing second.

B. Participants were aware of the hypothesis.




E. Experimenter controlled the measurement of time.




F. One order of conditions: ankle squeezing first, shoulder squeezing second.

Which of the following was a new proximate explanation offered by Durante et al. (2012) for ovulating women's increased interest in "sexy cads"?

The "sexy cads" were perceived as better fathers.

The characteristic of food-aversion learning that makes it distinct from classical conditioning learning is ...

there must be a delay between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (a few minutes or longer)

Imprinting is best considered an example of ...

a specialized learning ability.

Which of these responses would be expected of a typical split-brain patient when a noun is flashed in the left visual field? [Select all that are correct]


A. be able to say the word aloud.


B. claim to see nothing.


C. be able to draw a reasonably accurate picture of the item with the left hand.


D. be able to draw a reasonably accurate picture of the item with the right hand.

B. claim to see nothing.




D. be able to draw a reasonably accurate picture of the item with the right hand.

Which lobe of the cortex develops most quickly in humans?

occipital

In men, the somatosensory and primary motor cortices devote the most tissue to which of the following body parts:


A. penis


B. knee


C. lips


D. hip


E. elbow

C. lips

Peterson conducted a PET study to discover which brain areas are activated for various language-related tasks. Which of the following is a correct pairing between task and brain area?


A. seeing words & frontal lobe


B. hearing words & temporal lobe


C. generating words & parietal lobe


D. repeating words & occipital lobe

B. hearing words & temporal lobe

Rats are exposed to a high-pitch noise that is irritating. If they push a lever, the noise stops. As a result, they quickly press the lever whenever the noise occurs. In the language of operant conditioning, what would this type of behavior modification approach be called?

negative, reinforcement

Research has demonstrated that rats raised in more enriched environments have a greater number of neurons especially in the brain structure, __________, that is most linked to memory and learning.

hippocampus

Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment is best known for demonstrating ___________.

observational learning

Which of the following is NOT true for action potentials?


A. The rate of action potentials produced by a given neuron can vary.


B. The strength of the impulse is constant.


C. Their transmission is bidirectional.


D. Their firing is all-or-nothing.

Their transmission is bidirectional.

what is the name of the process that records brain activity electrically by placing electrodes on a person’s scalp?

EEG

According to UVa neuroscientist Jim Coan, increased activity in which region of the brain tends to be associated with increased risk for anxiety and depression problems?

right hemisphere

Most drugs used to change a person’s mood or behavior work by altering…

synaptic transmission processes.

What initially caused sickle-shaped blood cells?

Mutation.