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57 Cards in this Set

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Evolution before Darwin

Anaximandros, Hippolytus, & Plutarch

Lamarck

Use to be an essentialist then switched to the Inheritance of Acquired Traits. (Mollusks)

Common beliefs in 18th and 19th centuries

Life is static and unchanging. Everything is as it was when created by God.

Morphology

Similarities between the bone structures of different species

Embryology

The similarities between different species during development.

Darwin's gradfather

Eramus Darwin

Brother was named after him.

The Voyage of the Beagle

1831-1836

Dates

Lyell

Who Darwin collected information for while on the voyage

Population and Inheritance

There are more organisms than what is capable to survive and reproduce.

1859

The Origin of Species

Publication

3 components of Natural Selection

Variation, heredity/inheritance, & selection.

Variation

There are so many variations within a species from size to color to intelligence.

Heredity/inheritance

Only some variations are reliably passed on to offspring

Selection

Traits that help an organism survive and reproduce will have more offspring due to this advantage

Alfred Russell Wallace

Also wrote about natural selection.

Darwin's Bulldog

Thomas Huxley

Victorian Society towards NS

The tree of origin puts humans too close to "beasts" (apes)

Religious Creationist on NS

Species are unchanging since creation! Not random and blind!

Biologists on NS

Skeptical due to the gray area that is genetics (unknown idea during this period)

Gregor Mendel

Austrian Monk who studied particulate inheritance on peas.

Four parts of DNA

Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine

Number of human chromosomes?

46

Genes

Units inherited by offspring (unbroken & unblended)

Genotypes

Entire collection of genes within an individual.

Phenotypes

Expressed (visable) genes in an individual.

Homozygous Alleles

Same genes forms in each pair.

Heterozygous Alleles

Different version of gene in the allele

Modern Synthesis

Unification of Darwin's theory and genetics. (Throws out Lamarck and blending theory)

R.A. Fisher


Showed how continuous variation in organisms could be the result of the actions of many discreet gene locations.

J.B.S Haldane

Applied mathematical analysis to real examples of NS. (Peppered moths)


Sewall Wright

Genetic drift due to small populations interbreeding

Theodosius Dobzhansky

Pioneer of applying genetics to natural populations

Ernst Mayr

Systematics

Julian Huxley

Evolution: the modern synthesis

George Simpson

Used paleontology to support Darwin

Genetic Drift

Random changes in genetic makeup of population

Mutation

Random changes in genetic material (RNA or DNA). Copying errors, radiation, chemicals.

Founder Effects

New colony that interbreeds and looses some variation of the original species

Genetic Bottlenecks

Population shrinks due to a catastrophe and survivors only carry a portion of the entire genetic identity of the species.

Group selection

Traits that promotes the survival of the group over the individual

Selfish genes

Genes serve their own replication not necessarily to the benefit of the organism.

Konrad Lorenz

Ethologist who studied imprinting with geese

Ethology

Study of the adaptive value of animal behavior

Prairie Vole

Monogamous

Meadow Vole

Polyamous

Vasopressin

When injected, causes monogamy between meadow voles

Needs to be Adaptations:

Reliability to develop in species, efficiency at solving problem, and economy (without large cost to organism)

By-products

Traits with no adaptive value but are carried along by an adaptive trait.

Noise

Random effects from chance variation. Not tied to an adaptation.

Evolved Psychological Mechanisms (EMPs)

Design features that solved survival/reproductive problem

Environment of Evolutionary Adapted Ness (EEA)

Pressures that helped push for an adaptation

Evolutionary Time Lags

Adaptations for an organisms past may hinder them in their current environment

Synpolydactyly

Malformation in limbs due to mutation in HOX genes

Penetrance

Probability of expression of a trait

Pleitrophy

One gene affecting multiple traits

Polygenic traits

Multiple genes affect one trait

Epigenetics

Any heritage influence on gene activity that does not involve a change in DNA sequence