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26 Cards in this Set

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consequences of asymmetric limits on fitness

members of the sex subject to strong selection will be competitive




members of the sex subject to weak selection will be selective

intrasexual selection

male-male competition



alternative strategies




the smaller iguanas

smaller iguanas take less time to copulate




advantage to be smaller

alternative strategies




sneaky sex

fish shooting sperm into the water




ex. salmon

alternative strategies




sperm competition

can have clutch/litter with more than one dad




large ejaculations




ex. ladyflies

alternative strategies




infanticide

males kill offspring from other males

intersexual selection

selection on males




females choice




ex. red-collared widowbirds have long tails despite being a disadvantage

assortive mating

genetic variation in female preference and male display




preferences and variation then passed on to offspring

if pop display matches pop preference...

then pop will not evolve

runaway selection

carries pop away from equilibrium




ex. ants with longer eyestalks win male competitions and females develop preference for longer stalks

choosy female benefits

get better genes for offspring




can receive shelter from male




can receive food from male

polyandry

female having more than one partner




litter size and # of mother's sexual partners are related

mutualistic relationship

actor = + recipient = +




ex. greater ani birds and communal nests

selfishness

actor = + recipient = -




ex. cane toads eat each other to reduce competition

altruism

actor = - recipient = +




ex. ground squirrels will sound the alarm to warn others

spite

actor = - recipient = -




ex. bacteriocin

direct fitness

fitness contribution from personal fitness

indirect fitness

fitness contribution from relatives that achieve additional repro success due to altruistic behavior

inclusive fitness

direct fitness + indirect fitness

kin selection

natural selection favoring the spread of alleles that increase the indirect component of fitness

increased fitness of close relatives must....

decrease personal fitness to be darwinian




can show alleles favoring altruism can spread using relatedness

hamilton's rule

(benefits to recipient)x(relatedness)-(cost to actor) > 0

greenbeard effect

allele induces altruism toward others that have same allele (gives visible trait)





requirements for greenbeard effect

1. allele must cause the trait




2. recognize the trait in others




3. act altruistically toward that other

multilevel selection

an evolutionary process in which selection acts at multiple levels

cooperation

behavior that is beneficial or costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipient and selected for at least in part because recipient benefits




can be selected for when higher productivity of groups w/ cooperators outweighs the lower relative fitness of cooperators themselves