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70 Cards in this Set

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How long ago was Earth formed?

4.6 billion years ago

How long ago did life evolved?

3.6 billion years ago

What are the basic organic molecules for early life of Earth?

H2, CH4, SO2, NH4

Where did the certain types of clay converts simple carbon-based molecules to complex ones?

Hydrothermal vents

What was the energy sources for early Earth?

Genothermal energy from deep sea vents and sunlight energy

What will spontaneously from liposomes?

Phospholipids

Why effect allows RNA reproduce without any enzymes?

ribozymes

What stops the strong UV light from early Earth?

Water

How did life in early Earth get energy if they don't have UV light?

They use deep sea vents as source of thermal energy, therefore they have to be chemoautotrophic

What was the water temperature for early Earth life?

70o C

Was air dry or wet for early Earth?

Dry

What are 6 different kinds of fossils?

Original Skeletal Material, encrustations, tar impregenation, amber entombment, refrigeration, mummification

What is amber entombment?

insect trapped in resin to become fossil

What are two ways for dating?

Date directly, radiometric dating

When did cambrian explosion happen and how long did it last?

happened 565 million years ago and lasted for 40

What are the 5 major mass extinctions in Earth's History?

The Ordovician, The Devonian, the Permian, The Triassic, The cretaceous

When did The Ordovician happened and how much genera extinct and what is it?

Silurian Extinctoion


438 my ago, 57% genera extinct

When did the Devonian happen and how much genera extinct and what is it?

Carboniferous Extinction


360 my, 70% of all genera

When did the Permian extnction happen and how much marine species extinct and what is it ?

245 my ago, 90% marine species


caused by tectonic movement

When did the Triassic happen and how much genera extinct and what is it ?

208 my ago, 48% of all genera


Jurassic extinction

When did the Cretaceous happen and how much genera extinct and what is it ?

Tertiary Extinction


65 my ago


50% genera


include non avian

How much years did Darwin spent around the world for HMS beagle?

5

What continent did her go for HMS Beagle?

South America

What was about Galapagos islands?

There was different species for different islands that were close



Where did Wallace found out that the plants didn't change on but the animals changed and eats same fruit?

Java, Bali, Lombok

Darwin/Wallace concluded that species varydue to ?

natural selection

When did Darwin published his article?

1859

What was the book name of Darwin?

On the Origin of Species

What were to 4 evidence of Darwin for evolution?

Fossils, Homologous structures, vestigial features, artificial selection

One of the assumptions of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


Offspring ___

Vary



One of the assumptions of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


Some of vary is _____

heritable

One of the assumptions of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


More offspring are born than can ____

survive

One of the assumptions of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


Wild populations generally do not increase in _____

size

One of the inferences of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


Individuals of the same species will ____

compete

One of the inferences of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


The survivors will pass their favourable ____ to the next generation

traits

One of the inferences of Darwin on evolution by natural selection:


Over time, there will be more _____ from the survivors in the population

traits

Species that mature and reproduce quickly evolve __

quickly

increased in the number of genes = the potential for increased ______

genetic diversity

Increase in the number of alleles = more ____________ within a species between individuals

genetic variation

Sexual reproduction results in increased __________

genetic diversity

Everything has more than ___ genes

450

Macroevolution range:

10,000 to million of years

Microevolution range:

10 to 1000 years

What is the type of selection that extreme values are selected against and the population mean stays the same?

Stabilizing Selection

What is the selection that favors one of the extremes and the population mean shift up or down

Directional

What is the selection that favors both of the extreme and population means alerted and reduce range and form 2 species

Disruptive selection

What is the selection that influences the mating success of an individual traits that are favored tend to be sexually dimorphic

Sexual Selection

What is the selection that is the accumulation of many small evolutionary changes over long period of time and many generation.


eg. fly eyes

Cumulative selection

What is the behavior that decreases the fitness of an individual that is assisting or cooperation with a recipient individual whose fitness is increased


eg. elephant

Altruism

What is the selection of a behavior or trait of one individual that enhances the success of closely related individuals, thereby increasing the first individual's fitness indirectly

Kin selection

Evolution happens with ______ not _______

population, individuals

What is genetic drift?

Lost of alleles at random from population


animals of species get killed and trait not pessed down


eg. half blue half red > 1/4 blue 3/4 red > all red

What is bottleneck effect?

Some traits did not get passed down and disappeared because they die


Bigger genetic drift

What is the founder effect?

A group of species move to new place with small populations and they only have the limited alleles

What is gene flow?

transfer of useful alleles from a population to another.

What are 3 kinds of mutation?

neutral mutations, beneficial mutations, harmful mutations

What is neutral mutation?

Provide additional genetic materials

What is beneficial mutation?

Mutation that is rare but the environment selects them therefore it gets more and more

What is harmful mutation?

Bad mutation that the environment selects against

What does prezygotic mechanisms prevent?

Mating or fertilization

What does postzygotic mechanisms prevent?

the development of a zygote (baby between different species)

What are the 5 kinds of prezygotic isolation?

Ecological Isolation, Temporal Isolation, Behavioral Isolation, Mechanical Isolation, Genetic Isolation

What are the 3 kinds of postzygotic mechanisms?

Zygotic mortality, Hybird inviability, hybird infertility

What are the 2 kinds of speciation?

Allopatric and Sympatric

What is allopatric speciation?

2 population are geographically isolated and become seperate species

What is sympatric speciation?

2 population remain physical contact but stop exchanging alleles

What is convergent evolution?

two unrelated species being similar because of same pressures and have similar phenotypes

What is divergent evolution?

2 or more species evolving increasingly different traits under different pressure

What is theory of gradualism, is it correct?

species separate and change at a point at same time


wrong because they can change at different time

What is theory of punctuated equilibrium? how long does it take?



Species separate and change at the different time and time that fits environment


takes about 100,000 years