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60 Cards in this Set

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#89- Restoration and Revolution
In order to control the specter of revolutiona nd keep relationships in Europe safe, teh states began to control their population, create larger, more efficien tbureacracies, secret police forces, and more efficient cesorship offices. The church was restored to some of it's former glory and places like Spain became dominated by the CHurch again.
#90- An age of Competing Ideaologies.
The Restoration period was a highly ideological period in which ideas inspired either from support or approbation of the French Revolution played a role in whether one was commited to the restored order that emerged after 1815 or wanted to see it's demise.
#91- Conservatism
Modern conservatism is rooted in the writings of Edmund Burke, who said in the Reflection on the Revolution in France, that political changes should come over time. In Europe it was different and people believed that the politics should be rooted in the church.
#92- Nationalism
Nationalism is rooted in the idea that the people should be primarily loyal to their Naiton. This helped create the idea of layalty to a Naiton, not a city or village. Because everyone wanted the French soldiers out of their lands, they united under one nation and people like the Grimm brothers started recordin g old German tales to make it seem like the Germans were all that should and have ever been their.
#93- Liberalism
The roots can be found in the beliefs of the philosophes and their emphaisi on individual natural rights and the support for limits on political authorities throught the writings of constitutions and formations of parlaiments. The most important member of what became known as the classical school was Adam Smithe who wrote An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. H ebelieved that the government had too much control over the economy. teh classical economists- Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo- reached conclusions that can only be viwewd as deeply depressing. Malthus argued that there wasn't enough food for the growing poplulation in his Essay on Populaiton. Ricardo argued that factoriy owners were going to have to lower wges which benefited the factory owners but these propositions were obsolete. John Stuart Mill began as a disciple of Jeremy Bentham and he said that the government should do whatevers best for the majority of the population which became known as Utalitarianism. Mill later wrote his most famous work called On Liberty. Mill also argued for the rights of Women.
#94- Socialism
Socialists believed all people should have the same political rights and the same economic rights. The early socialists writers were called Utopian Socialists and were criticized becasue their beliefs weren't scientific. Some people said taht the community should be organized scientificlally like putting a certain number of people on a certain area of land.
This refers to the restoration of powers to the Bourbons and the changes that came after the Revolution. Th right to religious freedom remained but the King had the power for legislation. Louis XVII's heir was assassinated and he was pressured to restore the absolute monarchy which favored the nobles.
#96- Revolutionary Movements
By the third decade of the century, people across Europe showed signs that to stem their desire for change would be impossible.
#97- Spain and Portugal
In Spain, King Ferdinand VII was restored to power and he got rid of the liberal Cortes that had been drawn up by parlaiment. A revolt broke out in the military because some soldiers were being set to Sout Africa to stem a revolt their and the soldiers didn't like it so foru of the five great powers got involved and put down the revolt. Great Britain din't. Ferdinand VII was restored to absoltue power. A similar thing happened in Portugal.
#98- Italy
In Naples, King Ferdinand had promised, while in exile, to make his kingdom a constitutional monarchy and when he was restored to the throne, he didn't give up his absolute rights. This led to a revolt including members of secret nationalistic societies such as Carbonari. metternich wanted to put these revolutions down and at the Troppau Protocol, he, Austria, Russia, and Prussia stated that they could intervene in any revolution and the Naples revolution was put down.
#99- Greece
Liberal everywhere looked to the Greek Revolt to help them gain power because democracy had sprang up from Greece. This was also tied to the Eastern Question or the question of what to do with the Ottaman Empire. The Greeks broke off from the Ottoman Empire after help from the Russians, British and French. Serbia was also released from the Empire.
#100- Russia
Russia had emerged as a great European power but after Alexander I died, his heir, Constantine turned down the throne so Nicholas I got it and he ruled with an iron fist.
#101-Great Britain
The fear of social unrest was realized after the Napoleanic Wars in 1819 when a large crowd of 60,000 gathered in St Peter's field in Manchester and demanded fundamental poolitical changes. This was a peaceful protest, but soldiers on hand killed 11 people and this became known as the Peterloo Massacre. This made parlaiment pass the Six Acts, which banned demonstration and imposed censorship. In 1824 they repealed the Combination Acts and in 1832 teh Great Refoem Bill was passed and it showed that political reform was possible without the barricades. The Poor Law of 1834 said that poor people who were complaining had to enter a workhouse. Slavery was aoutlawed in 1833 and the Factory Act of 1833 reduced the number of hours children could work. In 1846, they eliminated the Corn Laws which placed taxes on imported grain.
#102- The Revolution of 1848
On January 12, 1848 their was a revolt in Sicily and this was the first of about 50 revolts around Europe. The people were upset with working wages and many people had nationalistic ideas. The Great potato Famine was a result of poor agriculture in Europe and 1 million people died in Ireland.
#103- France
In 1848 a revolution took place in France that sparked revolutions all around the world. Teh government thought the political reformaitons had gone too far and said that if people didn't like their rights, then they should get rich. The government banned open political meeteings so the people had to hold them in privacy and they called them banquets. Louis Philip was forced to resign his chief minister, Francoise Gouizot, because he banned a banquet and the people were revolting in Paris. Then the workers forced Louis Phillipe to flee to England and liberals and radicals began to fight so that caused more revolutions. The provisional governemnt made a goup of five moderates and they ruled but that led to a worker's revolt which was quickly put down. The governemnt then closed the national workshops which had been set up to provide a job for the poor. This led to the June days which were a violent struggle among the social classes and 10,000 people died. The republicans then felt strong enough to make the Second republic which was headed by a president who was voted on. Louis Napolean, Napolean's nephew, was voted president and he soon named himself Emperor.
#104- The Gemran States
In march 1848, a new Prussian constitution was drawn up and made two legislative houses and people had many rights, but the voing was still uneven. In Austria a series of revolts called for more rights and the Emperor to be overthrown but these were put down with force. In 1848, the German states decided to meet and see if they could make a unified german state. The Frankfurt Parlaiment as it was called was hampered by different opiniions. This didn't happen because the King they offered the position to turned it down.
#105- The Italian States
Revolts broke out all over Italy which created some temporary govenrments and some Italian liberals called for a war of unification and that meant fighting the Austrian controlled northern states. the Austrians easily defeated them and they didn't unify Italy for a while.
#106- Russia and Great Britatin
In Russia the revolutions of 1848 were avoided. In Great Britain they also avoided these revolutions but this year makred the peak for a movement known as Chartism. The Peoples CHarter of 1838 contained six points: Universal adult-male suffrage, Secret bellot, Abolition of property requirements for members of parlaiment, payment to members of parlaimnet, equal electoral districts, annual parlaiments with yearly elections. The charterists made things in the capital very uneasy and the charterists were putting huge pressure on parlaiment by saying they would become a national assembly that would take over the government. They were on the verge of a reform but they got lucky and ive of the six charters weren't passed.
#107- The Industrial Revolution
A group of scientists came from nowhere and made the factories to replace the domestic system of production.
#108- Great Britain's Industrial Lead
Several factors went in to the lead Great Britain took regarding the Industrial Revolution. Teh main reason is that people were free to do what they wanted economically and Great Britain had many resources. In 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle which increased the speed at which weavers could make cloth. In 1765 James Hargreaves invented the Spinning jenny that could spin 16 spools of thread at once. Richard Arkwhright invented the water frame which was a huge apparatus that could spin cloth and he employed 200 individuals under one roof which was the first factory. Then the Steam engine was made and they could build factories elsewhere. James Watt was the one who had studied the steam engine from the mines and placed it on a boat. Because of the lacking forests in Englang. they couldn't smelt iron until Abraham Darby discovered a way to us coal to smelt iron. The railroad was possibly the most important invention of the eighteenth century. After Great Britain, Europe exploded with industrial growth and places like Germany began to find ways to make it easier to have factories.
#109- The Impact of Industrialization
industrialization fueled the growth of cities. This effected the countryside because the large amounts of people were depleting the environment. The conditions were horrible for children and women so the Sadler's Comittee in Great Britainexposed this and parlaiment passed bills restricting the age limit for kids.
#110- Responses to Industrialization
Some people, called Luddites, refused to accept the rise of machinery. They tried to destroy it because it affected their waay of life. Workers sought to create cooperative societies, who did things like funeral benefits and other small things for members. People now created unions stick together and fight for rights.
#111- Socialism and Karl Marx
Many workers turned to socialism to improve their rights. The most significant strand in socialist thought was scietific socialism offered by Karl Marx. marx was living in exile because people didn't like his view so he and his colleague, Friedrich Engels, created a Communist League to link the far flung German socialists who were also living in exile. These writers teamed up and wrotethe pamphlet: The Communist Manifesto, which said that all history from the beggining of time consists of social classes. He also said that the proletariat, or the working class, were going to take over the bourgeois who were now the dominant class. marx also wrote Das Kapital which criticizes capitalists. In 1864 Marx organized the First International which was created to afford a central medium of communication and cooperation. After this dissolved and marx died, Engels made the Second International, a loose federation of the world's socialist parties heavily influenced by Marxism.
#112- The Age Of National Unification (1854-18710)
The states of Germany and Italy both wanted to create a unified state for fear of foreign domination.
#113- The Crimean War (1854- 1856)
The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and so did Great Britain and France. They battled in the Crimean region. The main losses happened because the soldiers did in the filthy field hospital, which inspired Florence Nightingale to revolutionize the nursing profession.
#114- The Unification of Italy
The prime minister of the King of Sardinia, Count Camillo di Cavour, wanted to unite Italy under his king Victor Emmanuel. Covour was quite different then early nationalists, such as Giuseppe Mazzini, in that he was interested in making Sardinia more powerful. If he was going to succeed then he needed foreign aid to expel the Austrians so he turned to France who held a grudge against Austria. The war began in 1859 but after a few victories, Napolean stopped the conflict because he was horrified by the amount of casualties. this angered Cavour and he resigned but resumed a year late. In southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi emerged and wanted to attack France because he didn't like the treaty they had made with Italy. Cavour encourages him to attack Sicily thinking Garibaldi would be wiped out but he succeeded. Cavour then felt threatened so he led his troops down south and unified Italy under King Vistor Emmanuel. The only two places that weren't a part of Italy were Rome and venetia. They soon joined and Rome became the capital.
#115- German Unification
In Germany people had been wanting a unified state since the Napoleanic war. Prussia soon took the lead in doing htis and they became very powerful especially after Otto von Bismarck became the Prime Minister. He put into work a military plan that the liberals didn't like and started to conquer. In 1866 he had conquered Denmark and declared war with Austria and Italy was hiw alliance. his modernized army soon conquere Austria and he turned his eye toward France. William, the king of Prussia, had a cousin that was about to take the throne of Spain but Napolean III didn't want that so he convinced the king not to take the throne. When William sent a telegram, called the Ems dispatch, to Bismarck to tell him what had happened, bismarck changed the words to make it seem like Prussia was insulting France so France declared war. At the battle of Sedan, prussia won and created a unified german state with William as the king. Bismarck then attacked Catholics and Socialists because he believed they were a threat. This led to his eventual forced retirement.
#116- France
France finally seemed stable with the creation of the Third French Republic in 1870. After Napolean III won the election he named himself Dictator for ten years. France propspered greatly during this time. Napolean had to create a liberal empire, making his state a constitutional monarchy. this never had the oppurtunity to succeed because Napolean died in the Franco-Prussian war. After that, the Third Republic arose and soon after that they formed a Paris Commune. by 1875 the Republic was firmly established and it proved to be very durable.
#117- Great Britain
Great Britain enjoyed very good stability during the nineteenth century. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 Britain showed off their great success in industrialization. One example was the Crystal Palace which showed the flourish society they lived in. Under the direction of the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, the Second Refoem Bill was created and it gave more voting rights to urban households. The , Benjamin's successor and rival, William Gladstone made this bill for countrymen also. This long Reign of Queen Victoria saw a diminish in power of the monarchy.
#118- Russia.
Under Alexander II Russia finally began to change and serfdom was outlawed. He established political states but never wrote a constituion or developed a parlaiment. he also westernized Russia in other ways.
#119- Austria
Austria was being weakened in the nineteenth century and they were losing power. They had lost their Italian territories and Prussia conquered them.
#120- The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire also wanted to get more Westernized. The government planned some things to hurry this along, but the Young Turks took it much farther. They made it a constitutional monarchy. They were always weak until they sided with the central powers in the first world war.
#121- AN AGE OF OPTIMISM AND DESPAIR: Europe From 1870 TO 1914- Darwin
Charles Darwin was one of the briliant minds of his time. he traveled to many places including the Galapagos islands in Africa. In his famous book The Origin of Species, he explained that traits for evolution are passed down and those who don't have then, fail to prduce. He called this natural selection. he began to gather followers. he soon found out that we had evolved over time and that gained him enemies. His famous follower, Herbert Spencer, was the one who said "survival of the fittest".
#122- The Second Industrial Revolution
Europe continued to grow economically and this period became known as the Second Industrial Revolution.
#123- Steel
In 1856, Henry Bessemer created a way to produce steel in larger quantities and keep the cost the same. Then a few years later, William Siemens created an even better wa ythat produced a higher quality product. Steel became the metal of the age.
#124- Electricity
Few discoveries have effected human life the way the discovery of how to harness electrical power did. In 1879, Thomas Edison invented the incandescent lightbulb and a few years later the first power plant went up in Britain. This made night life expand a lot.
#125- Transportation
Europe's railways expanded greatly. the Suez Canal was built. Faster ships replaced steam engines. perishable foods were now transported around the world because of the ice producing machines that had been invented. In 1885 Karl Bentz created a gas powered engine. In 1903 the Wright brothers made the first airplane.
#126- Communication and Education Advances
Universal Education meant more writing. the telegraph was invented in 1830. 1076, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. motina pictures were invented in the 1890s and phonographs were invented by Thomas Edison in 1876.
#127- Other Scientific Developmants
Synthetic dyes revolutionized the textile industry. Fertilizers were introduced and crops grew more. the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel made dynamite wnd they could blast through rock and hills. Michael Faraday worked with electricity and electromagnetism. James Joule defined many laws of thermodynamics. Dimitri Mendeleev developed the periodic table of the elements.
#128- Advances in Medicine
Surgery was revolutionized in 1849 when an American dentist named William Morton introduced anesthesia. During this time science was applied to medicine and Louis Pasteur dicovered that tiny organisms called microbed caused disease. Joseph Lister initiated the use of carbolic acid during surgery to disinfect. Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that if nurses and doctors washed their hands before delivering a baby less women would die from "childbed fever".
#129- Social Class and the Second Industril Revolution
The Industrial Revolution brought a change in the social class of Europe and the aristocracy diminished. The secong half of the nineteenth century has sometimes been called the Age of the Middle Class. This class wasn't even there during pre- industrial times. These peole enjoyed new luxuries such as running water and servants. Places became more touristy partly becasue of Thomas Cook. During this time more people and society became much more civilized. Socialism started to become popular because many people were still unhappy with their existence. Centrists such as Karl Kautsky held firm to Marx's law. Peaceful socialist views were declared heretical by extreme socialists such as Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg. Joseph Proudhon was the father of anarchism In 1840 he wrote What is Property? and he said that property is theft. Anarchists believed the society shouldn't have to be interfered with from the government.
After 1815 religion made a comeback and some rulers saw it neccessary for a good society.
#131- Catholicism
Spain in 1851 declared Catholicism as their National Religion and Austria started to repeal Catholic power. After the Revolution of 1848, Pope Pius IX was restored to power and then he wrote the Syllabus of Errors, which stated Liberalism as an error. Then he said that the pope had Papal Infallibility, which said that whatever the Pope said was the law. This created a backlash across Europe. In Germany the liberals attacked Catholic Institutions and schools in what was known as the Kulturkampf. In 1891 pope Leo XIII issued Rerum Noverum and said that Catholics had an obligation towards the poor. In primarily Catholic Countries, this led to the Catholic Social movement and in protestant lands the churches began to help the poor more.
#132- The Bible as History
In Germany theologians began to examine the bible in search of the historical Jesus. In 1835 David Freidrich Strauss published The Life of Jesus Critically Examined. Strauss said that the gospel was a series of myths to create a faithful Jesus instead of history.
#133- Religion for the Working Class and Peasants
A religious census taken in Great Britain in 1851 revealed that the working class had very little relationship with organized religion. In 1858, however, a peasant girl named Bernadette saw an image of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes and that place has become a National Shrine.
#134- Judaism, Anti -Semitism, and Zionism
The nineteenth century brought many new rights to the Jews but social discrimination was still there. Anti Semitism was rising and it based itself on the teachings of Darwin that said Jews were not only a religion but a foreign race. Hitler's first years were in Vienna and it was a very anti Semistic climate. Theodore Herzl then was the leading advocate for Zionism, or creating an all Jewish state.
#135- The Rights and Role of Women
Instead of the family working as an economic unit, the man provided for the family. The females place was in the home. This idea led to the cult of domesticity. Women were to make the home a blissful paradise. Books were written to advise the women on how to run their household.
#136- Limits to Women's Education and Work
The higher education was usually reserved for the men but some dracks began to appear. Some women took it a steo farther and became journalists and talk about sex openly.
#137- Women's Struggle for Increased Rights
As the century continued, feminists began to challenge civil ideas and fight for their rights. These feminists split into two groups: the Suffragists and the Women's Social and Political Opinion, formed. The Suffragists wanted to fight peacefully for the vote and the Women's Social and Political Union, formed by Emmeline Pankhurst, pursued militant fighting and they commited arson, harased people, and damaged property.
#138- Cultural Changes
At the turn of the century foundations for the emergence of the New Women. Women were actually becoming real people.
People began to apply science to society. leopold von Ranke said that they needed to look at the past through primary documnets so that it wasb't corrupted by the views of today.
#140- Anthropology
Due to the increasing global power of European Countries, Anthropology was becoming popular and the people studying it were studying the inferiority of the other races.
#141- Sociology
Sociology was inspired by the growing tendency of governments to keep statistics on the conditions of their people.
#142- Archeology
Scientific principles were also applied to archeology.
#143- The Arts
Romanticism began in the second half of the eighteenth century and it placed a much higher value on the primacy of wmotion and feeling.
#144- Romanticism in Literature
Part of Romanticism inspiration came from Jean-Jacques Rousseau who in his novel Emile, proposed we educate children based on nature not on rote memorization. Wolfgang von Goethe was the most important writer of this time. He wrote Sorrows of Young Werthe and it was so popular, people started imitating it and using some of the trends from it. He was the greatest figure of the Sturm und Drang era of German Romanticist writers. In their jointly written Lyrical Ballads, William Wodsworth ans Samuel Taylor Coleridge ignored punctuation revealing rejection of classical poetic forms. Sir Walter Scott and Victor Hugo invented the popular images of the middle ages intheir books, Ivanhoe and the Hunchback of Notre Dame. percy Bysshe Shelley rebelled against his government in England. Lord Byron challenged the political status quo. George Sand challenged the endemic oppression that weighed down women.
#145- Music
Ludwig von Beethoven started to do things against classical beliefs and was a Romanticist in that manner. Franz Schubert invented the lied and Hector Berlioz tried to tell stories without using singers and actors. Frederic Chopin and Franz List wrote music based on peasant and gypsy music. Giuseppi Verdi was the leading operatic composer of the Romanticist movement.
#146- Art
Eugene Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People challenged poltical belifs and stirred revolutions in the streets of Paris. By the mid-century photography was beginning to have an impact on art. Since photography could take the landscapes, the artists looked to new subjects known as Realists. Gustave Courbet painted The Stone-Breakerswhich challenged the Romantist beliefs of the era and revealed peasant life in the true reality. jean-Francois Millet is famous for The Sowers which shows peasants as if they grow out of the Earth. Honore Daumier is best known for his cartoons that lifted the curtain on the corrupt politicians.
#147- Realism in Literature
The realist writer Charles Dickens wrote about the industrial life and how unfair the poor are treated. Mary Ann Eliot wrote under the name George Eliot and in Middlemarch, wrote about the boring life of the middle-class person. Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary, wrote about a women who was decived on the notio of love by books and she commited suicide. Feodor Dostoyevsky was almost executed for participation in an illegal political group and this changed his views on the world so he wrote Crime and Ounishment and The Brothers Karamazov. In France, Emile Zola applied social sciences to his novels.
#148- Post-Realist Art: The Impressionists and Expressionists
Edouard Manet painted the Luncheon on the Grass and depicted two clothed males and a nude female. This was unacceptable at the time and it changed the way people looked at art. In 1863 Manet and other painters of his kind weren't allowed to show their paintings at the annual salon and the public were furious so Napoleaan IIII mad the Salon Des Refuses for Manet and his fellow painter. These painters were soon labeled as impressionists, which had earlier been used to describe Claude Monet's work. Most impressionists painted everyday things like Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas. Paul Cezanne pushed impressionism even father and because of this he is called the father of modern art. Vincent Van Gough was the father of expressionists and put his deepest emotions on his paper.