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15 Cards in this Set

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________ is a modification of the nascent pre-messenger RNA(pre-mRNA) transcript in which introns are removed and exons are joined. For nuclear encoded genes, splicing takes place within the nucleus after or concurrently with transcription

RNA Splicing

Nucleotide sequences that influence the lifespan of mRNA in eukaryotes reside in the _________ at the ____ end of the molecule

untranslated region (UTR); 3' end

Various types of protein processing aresubject to control after translation. For instance, _______ is a protein complex that binds to and degrades unneeded protein molecules.

proteasomes

Noncoding RNAs regulate gene expression at what 2 points?

-mRNA translation


-chromatin configuration

___________ can bind to mRNA and degrade them or block its translation (functions to silence mRNA). These have similar function to _________, which cause RNA interference (inhibition of gene expression by RNA molecules).

microRNA (miRNA); small interfering RNA (siRNA)

______________ are substances in the egg that influence early development. Signal molecules from embryonic cells cause transcriptional changes in nearby target cells called __________. Interactions between these cells induce differentiation of specialized cell types.

Cytoplasmic Determinants; induction

___________ produce muscle-specific proteins, which form skeletal muscle cells. _______ is a "master regulatory gene" that produce proteins that commit to becoming skeletal muscle. It is a transcription factor that binds to enhancers of target genes.

myoblast; MyoD

The development of spatial organization/ pattern formation of tissues and organs begins with the establishment of the ____________.

major axes

The ___________ organizes the anterior development of Drosophila and affects the frong half of the body. It is a ________________, which establishes the axes of the body and control the orientation of the egg.

Bicoid Gene; Maternal Effect Gene (aka Egg-Polarity Gene)

What would happen to an embryo w/ a defective bicoid gene? (2)

It will lack the front half of its body & have duplicate posterior structures at both ends

Oncogenes vs Proto-Oncogenes

Oncogenes- cancer-causing genes

Proto-oncogenes- corresponds to normal cellular genes responsible for normal cell growth


T/F: The conversion of a oncogene to a proto-oncogene can lead to abnormal stimulation of the cell cycle, which may lead to a tumor

False; the conversion of proto-oncogene to oncogen






(PO- normal cell genes; O- cancer causing genes)

Mutations in the ras genes may have what effects?

lead to production of hyperactive Ras protein, which will lead to increased cell division




Ras protein- stimulates/ inhibits cell growth

Mutation in the p53 gene may have what effects?

prevent suppression of the cell cycle, which will lead to mutation due to DNA damage being passed down




Suppression of cell cycle can prevent cell from passing on mutations due to DNA damage

T/F: Mutation to adenomatous polyposis coli is common in individuals w/ colorectal cancer while mutation ins the BRCA1/ BRCA2 gene is found in breast cancer patients.

True!