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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is the greatest happiness principle?

Actions are right to the degree that they promote happiness, wrong to the degree that they promote misery.

How does Mill define happiness?

Pleasure and the absence of pain

What does Mill say about the difference between quality and quantity of pleasures?

Higher quality pleasures are more desirable and valuable than even larger quantities of lower pleasures

If there are questions about whether one kind of pleasure is a greater quality than another, what test does Mill suggest we apply to determine which is the superior pleasure?

The superior pleasure will be whichever is preferred by those who have experienced both

"If it is true that human beings only seek pleasure in life, then they are no better than pigs."

Would Mill agree with this statement?

No because the pleasures that make pigs happy do not satisfy humans

If someone is not motivated by duty, but by the hope for a reward, does Mill think their action is still morally good?

Yes he thinks intentions don't matter as much as outcomes

What does Mill say is the relationship between happiness and virtue?

Virtue is not a means to happiness, but one ingredient of happiness

According to Kant, what is the only thing in the world that can be considered good without limitation?

A good will

How important does Kant think outcomes or the consequences of our actions are to whether the act has moral worth?

Not at all

What is the categorical imperative?

Act only on those maxims which you could will to be a universal law

Why does Kant think it would be impossible to will that everyone should lie to get money whenever they need it?

If everyone always lied to get money, no one would lend money and lying would be impossible

Why does Kant think it is impossible to will that we should never help each other in times of need?

Because there are many cases where even an independent person needs help from others

What is the practical imperative?

Always treat yourself and others as though they are ends-in-themselves and never as means alone

According to the practical imperative why is it wrong to borrow money with no intention of repaying it?

Lying doesn't allow others to agree to being used, and so they are not being treated as ends-in-themselves

What does Aristotle think is the chief good for human beings?


How does Aristotle think we know something is the chief good?

It is desired only for itself and never for the sake of something else

How does Aristotle think the function of a thing is related to the good for that thing?

A thing's function will determine the good for that thing

How does Aristotle think we come to have moral virtue?

By developing good habits

What does Aristotle say is the natural effect of excess (too much) and defect (too little)?

Both excess and defect are destructive

What does Aristotle say is the relationship between the intermediate and virtues like courage?

Virtue is a disposition to choose the intermediate

What advice would Aristotle give to a person who finds herself acting in some extreme way -- for instance, being habitually late for appointments?

She should train herself to be on time by forcing herself to be early for appointments