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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who makes the distinction between attributive and predicative adjectives?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
In the phrase "a big flea," big is which type of adjective?
In the phrase, "the red shoes," red is which type of adjective?
Attributive adjective
does not split up logically (ex: That is a fast snail does NOT = That is fast; That is a snail)
Adjective that does not split up logically (ex: That is a fast snail does NOT = That is fast; That is a snail)
Predicative adjective
can split up logically (ex: The dress is silk DOES = Is a dress; Is silk)
According to Geach, what kind of adjective is "good"?
attributive- it is the function of the particular thing (there is a good for fish that is not a good for other things)
Give and define Peter Geach's two types of adjectives in his "Good and Evil." Which kind of adjective is "good," according to Geach?
Predicative: can split up logically
Attributive: cannot split up logically; the adjective is relative to the subject

Geach says "good" is attributive because it depends on the subject
Who said, "good and bad are always attributive"?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
Who said, "whatever holds true of an A as such holds true of a good A"?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
What type of adjective is an alienans adjective?
Attributive- changes the nature of the subject (a forged banknote is not a banknote)
Who said, "Even when 'good' or 'bad' stands by itself as a predicate, and is thus grammatically predicative, some substantive has to be understood; there is no such thing as being just good or bad, there is only being a good or bad so-and-so"?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
Who said, "It is mere prejudice to think that either all things called 'good' must satisfy some one conclusion, or the term 'good' is hopelessly ambiguous"?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
Who discusses the Naturalistic Fallacy?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
Who said, "I conclude that objectivism is the only pretense way out of the Naturalistic Fallacy: it does not really give account of how the 'good' differs in its logic from other terms, but only darkens counsel by words without knowledge"?
P.T. Geach, "Good and Evil"
Who said, "The good for man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue."
Who said, "...so good must have commendatory not, descriptive force."

What does this mean?

good describes worth, not qualities
"He who saves a fellow creature from drowining does what is morally right, whether his motive be duty or th hope of being paid for his trouble..."
It is impossible to think of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be considered good without limitation except a good will."
"The will is thought as a capacity to determine itself to acting in coformity with the representation of certian laws. And such capacity can only be found in rational beings."
actions are right in proportion as they promote happiness, worng as they tend to promote the reverse of happiness"
What is happiness according to Mill?
pleasure and the absence of pain
Mill argues that ____ is the sole basis of morality, and that people never desire anything but [it].
Who seeks to find "the criterion of right and wrong"?
What does Mill see as the only desirable ends?
pleasure and freedom from pain
Who sees pleasure and freedom from pain as the only desirable ends?
What is the Greatest Happiness principle?
"Actions are right in proportion as they promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happinessis intended pleasure and absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure."
What is this called? Who established this? "Actions are right in proportion as they promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happinessis intended pleasure and absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure."
Greatest Happiness Principle; Mill
Criticisms of Mill
-It cannot account for the differences between higher and lower pleasures
-It is a godless theory
-Virtue is more important than happiness
According to Mill, ________ is a sign that we are exercizing our higher facilities.
Mill says a person gets virtues in reference to_______
Mill says a person gets _______ in reference to consequences
Why does Mill argue Justice to be valuable?
It is socially useful
How does Mill differentiate between higher and lower pleasures?
Mill delineates how to differentiate between higher- and lower-quality pleasures: A pleasure is of higher quality if people would choose it over a different pleasure even if it is accompanied by discomfort, and if they would not trade it for a greater amount of the other pleasure.
Who? What does it mean?
"It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinions, it is because they only know their side of the question."

the people best qualified to judge a pleasure's quality are people who have experienced both the higher and the lower; humans will always choose highest pleasures
Does the utilitarian standard refer to the individual or society
How does Mill refute the claim that Utilitarianism is a Godless theory?
God is a utilitarian
According to Mill the goodness of sacrifie is based on the goodness of________.
What does Mill find to be the greatest sources of unhappiness?
selfishness and a lack of mental cultivation
Is Utilitarianism concerned with motives or results?
Which sanctions are more powerful, internal or external?
According to Mill, what is the only proof that something is desirable?
that people actually desire it
If you can tell a lie and more people are positively affected, do it
According to Mill, why am I bound to promote general happiness?
- the improvment of education
(we're teaching you to believe that way)
-we will sanction you(external)
-internal sanction- you will feel pleasure at maximizing pleasure for others
Why does Mill consider God to be Utiltarian?
He is concerned with the greatest happiness of society
(Mill) If a law is just, but has negative consequences...
change the law
(Mill)In response to the criticism that the most virtuous people have been martyrs who gave up their happiness,
that martyrdom is only valuable because they sacrificed their own happiness for the general good.
Which of the following actions would Mill judge as morally the best?
(A) Saving a person from drowning out of a sense of moral duty.
(B) Saving a person from drowning out of a desire for celebrity.
(C) Saving a person from drowning out of a desire for reward money.
(D) All three actions are equally good.
(D) All three actions are equally good.
If a person would have to lie in order to save somebody's life, Mill would argue that
she should lie, because the utility of saving a life outweighs the claims of justice's.
Which of the following does Mill say is a common meaning of the term justice?
(A) Receiving what one deserves.
(B) Not violating agreements.
(C) Not showing preferences inappropriately.
(D) All of the above.
(D) All of the above.
Mill argues that the foundation of rights is
According to Kant, when are actions moral?
actions are moral if and only if they are undertaken for the sake of morality alone (without any ulterior motive).
According to Kant, is morality based on motives or consequences?
According to Kant, actions are morak only if not in respect to...
the moral law
Moral philosophy; the study of how things ought to happen
a priori
(pure) concepts that occur to us independent of any experience or perception (at first glance)
a posteriori
(empirical) ideas we derive from our experience in the world (after investigation)
analytic proposition
the subject contains the predicate
synthetic proposition
the predicate requires information outside of the subject
type of proposition: All bachelors are male
analytic a priori
type of proposition: A triangle is a 3-sided figure
analytic a priori
type of proposition: The bus driver has a beard
synthetic a posteriori
According to Kant, what is the one thing that is unambiguously good?
a good will (all other things can be used for bad purposes)
(Kant) what is a maxim
motivating principle
According to Kant, duties are
specific obligation of a good will
Kant's 3 formulations of the categorical imperative
- Do only what you would will to be a universal law
-Treat all humans as ends
-Consider yourself as a citizen in the kingdom of ends
First formulation of the categorical imperative
act in a way that we should want the maxim of our action to become a universal law
What does the first categorical imperative say about false promises?
If everyone gave false promises, promises would not exist
kingdom of ends
a legal community in which all rational beings are at once the makers and subjects of all laws.
In heteronomy, how is the will determined?
By something outside ourselves
In autonomy, how is the will determined?
When we follow the categorical imperative and chose maxims that could be universal laws, we are in a state of "autonomy"; we use reason to determine our own law for ourselves. In other words, we are free.
Who: Thus freedom of the will may be neither proven nor disproven. All that we may know is that we have a concept of freedom of the will, and that morality may be based on this concept.
the study of how things happen in the world of material objects.
the study of how things ought to happen in the world of human beings.
the study of pure thought, independent of any objects.
Who: Actions are not truly moral if they only appear to conform to moral law but lack a moral motivation.
Reason's function according to Kant
to bring about a will that is good in itself, as opposed to good for some particular purpose, such as the attainment of happiness.
Hypothetical imperatives
command that a particular action is necessary as a means to some purpose, such as the attainment of personal happiness
Categorical imperatives
command that some action is necessary in and of itself
Hypothetical or Categorical: If you want to stop global warming, change your light bulbs.
Hypothetical ('if you want') done for an end other than duty
4 examples of how common notions of duty conform to the categorical imperative
1. suicide
2. borrowing on false promises
3. talents rusting
4. deny welfare, assistance to people
Why must pure moral principles be grasped a priori?
We cannot base moral principles on experience bc we have not seen or experienced everything
3 formulations of the principle of morality/ categorical imperative
1. act such that your maxim could become a universal law
2. act such that all rational beings are ends in themselves
3. act such that your maxim could be a law in the kingdom of ends
independent will
will depending on external factors
Perfect Duties
always contradict; ex: lying, borrowing on false promises, theft, suicide
Imperfect Duties
require practical judgement; ex: laziness, charity