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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Argument
any set of declarative sentences which a writer states premises for the truth of some other members of the set
premises
reasons cited as grounds in an argument
conclusion
statement whose truth is supposed to be established by the premises
inductive argument
the truth of of premises makes the conclusion probably true
deductive argument
the truth of the premises guarantees the conclusion
valid argument
deductive argument such that IF the premises are true, the conclusion must be true
invalid argument
a deductive argument such that it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
critique a déductive argument
either invalid, or one/more false premises
show an argument is invalid
true premises with a false conclusion
descriptive relativism
different cultures accept different moral principles
cultural moral relativism
what is right or wrong for a culture depends on what the culture accepts as right or wrong
individual moral relativism
what is right or wrong for an individual depends on what the individual accepts as right or wrong
meta ethical relativism
IN CASES OF ETHICAL DISAGREEMENT, THERE IS NO VALID RATIONAL WAY OF JUSTIFYING ONE ETHICAL JUDGMENT OVER ANOTHER
ethics
action guide that is to guide everyones actions in those situations in which their actions affect others and its principles which are public principles take into account the interests of the others affected
assumpetions underlying our conception of ethics
1. there are objectively valid ethical principles that apply to everyone that we know and use to determine what we ought to do
2. we can act as ethicical principles direct us to act
3. that we have reason to act as thical principles direct us to act
folkways
right way of doing things (etiquette, dress)
mores
folkways but to a higher level "don't break promises"
objectivity
true regardless of what one things
subjectivity
true depending on whether speaker endorses it
taboos
the wrong way to do things
the morality of a group
the sum of the taboos and prescriptions in the folkways by which right conduct is defined