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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

informed consent

telling participant what is going to happen so they can make an informed decision.

to avoid this inform the participant on the study, the purpose of the study and their part in it.

possible limitation: information could cause them to guess the aims of the study and they may change their behaviour.

right to withdraw

participants should be given the right to withdraw if they become uncomfortable/ distressed at any time

to avoid give the right to withdraw- make sure participants know they can leave at any time.

possible limitation: they may feel pressure not to withdraw as it may spoil the study

also sometimes participants are paid


sometimes can be necessary to decieve participants about the true aims of a study otherwise they may alter their behaviour ruining the study.

to avoid participants should be fully debriefed after the study and offered oppurtunity to withdraw.

possible limitation: debriefing can't turn the clock back, participants may still feel embaressed.

protection from harm

from a researchers point of view studying some of the more important questions in psychology may involve a degree of distress to participants.

to avoid we should avoid any situation that could cause participants to experience physical/psychological damage.

possible limitation: researchers are not always able to accurately predict the risks of taking part in a study.


it may be difficult to protect confidentiality as researchers wish to publish the findings

to avoid: researchers should not record names of any participants,use numbers/false names.

possible limitations: sometimes its possible to workout who participants are on the basis of info provided e.g. location of a school


in researchers view it may be difficult to avoid invasion of privacy when studying participants without their awareness.

to avoid: do not observe anyone without their informed consent unless it is a public place. participants could be asked to give their retrospective consent

possible limitation: there is no universal agreement about what constitutes a public place not everyone may agree about acceptability of being observed in some conditions.