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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Your memory of what you did on prom night is stored as which type of memory?
Gillian asks Eddie to show her how to play one of his guitar solos. At first, Eddie attempts to explain every finger and hand movement involved in the solo. As he proceeds, he becomes more and more frustrated. Although he knows the guitar solo well, he finds it difficult to put this knowledge into words. Eddie ends up just playing the part for Gillian and asking her to try to imitate him. The guitar solo was most likely encoded as what type of memory?
Glenn likes to watch nature documentaries. While watching a documentary about the mating habits of the octopus, Glenn was reminded of his trip to Mardi Gras two years earlier. Glenn's involuntary recollection is an example of
Implicit memory.
Both Lenny and Squiggy have a vocabulary test tomorrow. Lenny passively reads his list of words over and over again. Squiggy arranges the words in the list to tell a story and practices using each word in a sentence. Which type of rehearsal is Lenny using? Which type is Squiggy using?
Maintenance; elaborative.
Merle was asked to remember the following list of numbers: 1, 7, 7, 6, 1, 8, 6, 5, 1, 9, 1, 8, 1, 9, 4, 2. She was able to do this because she grouped them this way: 1776, 1865, 1918, 1942. What method did Merle use to remember the list of numbers?
Rachel calls her husband Ted at his office to ask him to pick up a few things at the store on the way home. She rattles off a list of twenty-five items. The two then say good-bye and hang up. Ted reaches for pencil and paper. How many of the twenty-five items should he be able to write down from memory without chunking?
Five to nine.
Rachel calls her husband Ted at his office to ask him to pick up a few things at the store on the way home. She rattles off a list of twenty-five items. The two then say good-bye and hang up. Ted reaches for pencil and paper and is able to remember the first several items on the grocery list, which is an example of
The primacy effect.
The items you are working on now are testing which memory process?
Chris, who was born and raised in Tennessee, went away to college in Illinois. When he returned to his parents' house, he was amazed at all the childhood memories that came to mind. Chris's remembering is an example of
Context-dependent memory.
Last month, Roger got drunk and misplaced his glasses. He couldn't find them until today when he came home slightly inebriated and remembered exactly where he had put them. The fact that he was able to find them after drinking but not while he was sober demonstrates
State-dependent memory.
Amanda was telling Consuela about a movie she had seen when Consuela asked who starred in the movie. Amanda became frustrated because even though she could describe the actor, she could not think of his name. Amanda is experiencing
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
In court, the defense attorney addressed the witness with: "There was a hammer lying on the ground. Did you see it?" Research has shown that if there was no hammer, the witness is most likely to answer:
"Yes, I'm sure I saw a hammer."
Julie decides to order a pizza. She looks up the phone number and picks up the phone. But before she can make the call, her roommate starts talking to her. Julie realizes that she is holding the phone but has no idea what the phone number of the pizza delivery service is, even though it has been less than twenty seconds since she looked up the number. What caused Julie to forget the number, and what part of memory was affected?
Interference; short-term memory.
Greg studied French in high school. When he went to college, he decided to study Spanish. He found the class very difficult because he kept using French vocabulary words and French verb endings. This is an example of
Proactive interference.
In the Fall semester, Professor Cole managed to remember the names of all 44 students in his lecture class. Then, when Spring semester came, he was able to remember the names of 42 new students. One day, while strolling on campus, he ran into one of the students from the Fall semester. No matter how hard he tried, he could not retrieve the student's name. All he kept coming up with were the names of Spring semester students. His inability to remember the old names is probably due to
Retroactive interference.
Koji was accidentally struck on the head. At first, he seemed to be all right. After a while, it became apparent that, although he remembered events leading up to the accident, he had no memory of what happened after the accident. Koji most likely experienced damage to the cells that produce which substance in his brain?
Ryan suffered retrograde amnesia after crashing his scooter into an oncoming van. Gradually, he regained his memory back up to the day of the accident, but he still had no recollection of the accident itself. Ryan's experience provides support for which theory of memory?
Information-processing theory.
Rachel calls her husband Ted at his office to ask him to pick up a few things at the store on the way home. She rattles off a list of twenty-five items. To ensure that he remembers every item on the list, Ted should
Use a mnemonic.
Instead of repeating, "Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto" to remember the planets, Mary says to herself, "Man very early made jars stand up nearly perfect." Mary is using
A mnemonic.
On the first day of school, when the art teacher dictated the list of supplies that they would need to get for the class, Harrison realized that he didn't have pen or paper for writing them down. Instead, he visualized each item in a different part of his house. For instance, in the dining room, he imagined a vase on the table filled with #2 pencils instead of flowers; in the living room, the couch had four sketch pads instead of cushions; in the bathroom, there was a gum eraser in the soap dish; and in the kitchen, the silverware drawer was filled with assorted paintbrushes. Harrison was using a mnemonic device called
The method of loci.
As Bernardo sits back listening to music, the music is being encoded into his memory with which type of code?
"I remember when," usually precedes the recollection of ________ memories, whereas, "I know that," usually precedes the recollection of ________ memories.
Episodic; semantic.
Tiffany kept repeating to herself over and over the names of the people in her fiancé's family. What type of rehearsal was she using?
Mr. Herrera told his students that the test would include multiple-choice items. The main items were multiple choice, but Mr. Herrera added an essay item for extra credit. According to the transfer-appropriate processing model, how should Mr. Herrera's students do on the essay item?
Worse than on the multiple-choice items.
In the parallel distributed processing (PDP) model of memory, units of knowledge are remembered when
They are connected by networks of association to other units.
Roger and Amanda go out to see a movie. Amanda tells Roger during the film, "The reason we perceive smooth motion on the screen is because each image is held in memory long enough to allow our eyes to fixate again." What kind of memory is Amanda talking about?
Sensory memory.
What does the "'magic number' of seven plus or minus two" refer to?
The number of chunks that can be processed in short-term memory at any one time.
The Brown-Peterson procedure is used to measure the
Length of time that information remains in short-term memory without rehearsal.
Information is most often encoded into short-term memory using ________ coding, and into long-term memory using ________ coding.
Acoustic; semantic.
The probability of recalling items at the end of a list is greater than the probability of recalling those that are at the beginning or the middle of the list. This phenomenon is known as the
Recency effect.
When features of the environment are encoded along with information, it is easier to recall the information in the same location that it was originally learned. This describes the phenomenon known as
Context-dependent memory.
Sometimes we are able to recall only partial, or incomplete, information from long-term memory. One such example, that does not involve brain damage, is
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
Which model of memory explains the formation of spontaneous generalizations?
The parallel distributed processing model.
Research has shown that when a crime eyewitness speaks with confidence, he is likely to be
Less than accurate.
One discovery that was made using Ebbinghaus' 'method of savings' is the realization that
Even though information is forgotten, it will be easier to relearn the second time.
When new information prevents a person from remembering something learned in the past, the forgetting is due to
Retroactive interference.
Research on motivated forgetting has shown that people are more likely to forget ________ events than ________ events.
Unpleasant; pleasant.
Lately, Peter noticed that his grandfather was having trouble remembering the names of members of the family. His doctor suspects that the memory problems might mean that he is in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. If the doctor is correct, then Peter's grandfather's brain might be deficient in neurons that use which of the following neurotransmitters?
Koji was accidentally struck on the head. At first, he seemed to be all right. After a while, it became apparent that, although he remembered events leading up to the accident, he had no memory of what happened after the accident. Koji's condition is an example of
Anterograde amnesia.
What are mnemonics?
Organization-based memory strategies.
Danica is going to read a chapter from her text using the PQ4R method. She opens her book and flips through the chapter noting topic headings and italicized words. Which step of the PQ4R has Danica completed?
True / False

An eyewitness who is particularly confident and who provides extensive details about what she saw is an especially credible witness.
True / False

It is virtually impossible to form a false memory.
True / False

It is impossible to repress and then recover traumatic memories.
True / False

Memories are stored in the hippocampus.