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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Sedimentary rocks can form

By the cementing together of loose grains of preexisting rock

From shell fragments or carbon-rich relicts of plants

From shell fragments or carbon-rich relicts of plants

Choose the proper listing of detritus terms, going from smallest to largest: slit, sand, pebbles, cobbles

Mud, silt, sand, pebbles, cobbles

Identify the TRUE statement:

- Conglomerates consist of a single grain size.

- Pieces of broken rock produced by physical weathering are collectively called clasts or detritus.

- A well-sorted clastic rock is made up of different-sized particles.

- An immature clastic rock has well-sorted, resistant grains.

Pieces of broken rock produced by physical weathering are collectively called clasts or detritus.

Which of the following features indicates the top of a sedimentary bed, or bed-surface, marker?

Scour marks, fossil footprints, graded bedding, mud cracks

T/F: Lithification is a general term used to describe all the physical, chemical, and biological processes that make a sedimentary rock from sediments.


A nonmarine clastic sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments surrounded by matrix is


A clastic sedimentary rock with clay and silt-sized grains that breaks in thin sheets is called


Which term has nothing to do with the mineral calcite?

Chert (made of the mineral quartz)

Which of the following is an organic sedimentary rock originated as decaying plant matter is


Identify the TRUE statement:

- Both chert and limestone may have either chemical or biochemical origin.

- Chemical sedimentary rocks are crystalline in texture.

- Gypsum and halite are evaporite minerals.

- Flint, jasper, agate, and petrified wood are all varieties of the siliceous rock chert.

All are correct.

Ripple marks on a bedding plane

Could suggest an ancient stream bed or a seashore

What is the most logical past environment to have produced a deposit consisting of layers of unsorted, unstratified sedimentary clasts, clay-sized to boulder-sized?

Glacial valley

Geologists find a thick sequence of alternating shales and sandstones. The probable depositional environment and interpretation of these are:

Deep-marine deposits near the continental shelf.

The structure that may form where a stream enters a lake

Has sloping foreset beds of gravel and sand

Has nearly horizontal silty bottomset beds on the lake floor

Has nearly horizontal topset beds composed of gravel

Is called a delta

Which of the following geological features was NOT formed by sedimentary processes?

Columbia river plateau

Which of the following sedimentary features is the surest indicator that the past environment was deep water?


T/F: Sedimentary rocks differ from igneous rocks in that sedimentary rocks can never be crystalline in texture and igneous rocks always are crystalline.


The words weathering and erosion are synonyms; they can be used interchangeably.


Graywacke and conglomerate are examples of well-sorted rocks; claystone and siltstone are examples of poorly sorted rocks.


The formation of dolostone, due to the introduction of magnesium into limestone, is an example of diagenesis.


The word fluvial means lake.


Obvious sandstone beach deposits overlain by marine mudstone indicate transgression of the sea.


Diagenesis and metamorphism both alter the texture and mineral composition of rock; metamorphism is the higher temperature process.


A sequence of sedimentary beds, traceable across a region and distinctive enough to be recognized as a unit is called a stratigraphic formation.


Which of the following is NOT one of the major classes of sedimentary rocks?

Intrusive (it's igneous)

Formation of a clastic sedimentary rock involves five stages. Which of the following describes lithification?

Compaction and cementation of loose particles to form solid rock

As sediment is transported downstream, away from its point of origin, the particles found in the stream become

Rounder, smaller, of greater resistance, better sorted by size

Rocks formed dominantly from the calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms are classified as _____ and called _____.

Biochemical and limestone

Ripple marks, dunes, and cross bedding are useful indicators of

Current direction

A sedimentary basin that forms when continental lithosphere is stretched, causing down-dropped crustal blocks bordered by narrow mountain ranges and alluvial fans, is called a

Rift basin

Sediments in a passive-margin basin are primarily fluvially derived but can also include carbonates.


When sea level rises, the shoreline migrates inland, flooding the land and depositing coastal sediments over preexisting terrestrial sediments. This process is called