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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Def: criterion measures
Measures of job performance
What tests have the highest validity for job selection?
Job knowledge
What influences incremental validity of a personnel selection test? *
Base rate - % of successful current employees
Selection ratio - % of applicants to be hired
Measure's validity coefficient
Describe the steps in developing a training program
1. Needs analysis, including
organization analysis - is training nec
task analysis - determine elements
person analysis - who needs it

2. Program design

3. Program evaluation
What is the advantage of Personnel Comparison Systems (PCS or ranking)
Reduction in rater bias
Def: halo effect
Tendency to extend judgement of all aspects of behavior on the basis of a single attribute or characteristic
Best way to reduce rater bias
Training in
recognition of multiple contribution
objective evaluation techniques
Def: biodata *
Biographical data inventory including
work history
personal interests

Can be predictive of job success if correlated w job performance, but is not as good as cognitive tests

However often lacks face validity
Def: criterion contamination
Performance on an objective test biases subjective evaluation
Def: adverse impact
Selection rates for minorities that are not distributed like their distribution in the population

Selection rate of the minority is less than 80% of the majority rate

Exceptions can be made for bona fide job requirements when there are no alternative measures

Legal issue
Calculation of incremental validity
Positive hit rate - base rate

Positive hit rate:
% of successful hirees

Base rate:
% of successful current employees


Taylor-Russell tables
Factors considered in the Taylor-Russell tables
Validity coefficient
Base rate
Selection ratio
Def: selection ratio *
Job openings / Applicants

low selection ratio means lots of applicants
Using Taylor-Russell tables, what maximizes incremental validity?
Large validity coefficient
Moderate base rate
Low selection ratio
Optimal interrelationship among multiple predictors
High correlation w criterion
Low correlation w one another
Desc: Holland's theory of behavior / career choice *
Success is predicted by a congruence between personality and environmental variables

A highly differentiated person scores high on a single type and predicts best outcome for personality and occupational match

but doesn't account for impact of discrimination
What are Holland's personality types? *
Realistic - mechanical
Investigative - analytic
Artistic - expressive, original, introspective
Social - people oriented
Enterprising - manipulative
Conventional - clerical

organized in order around a hexagon; adjacent types being relatively similar to one another
Behaviorly Anchored Rating Scale

Assessment based on critical incidents
Def 'realistic job preview' and describe its function
It provides an applicant w info about the job.

Goal is to reduce employee disillusionment and turnover.
Describe Theory X leaders
Assume work is distasteful
Most workers lack direction
Workers must be controlled or coerced
Workers are motivated by greed

Closer to scientific management
Describe Theory Y leaders

Work comes naturally
Workers are self-directed, responsible and autonomous

Closer to human relations approach
Under what circumstances (according to Fiedler) is a leader most effective

Leaders describing their least preferred coworker (LPC) in negative terms:

are most effective in situation permitting either little or considerable influence; are task and achievement oriented

Leaders describing their LPC in positive terms

are most effective when moderate control is possible; are primarily relationship oriented

Fiedler believes that leaders' style is fixed and the best you can do is to get a good match between style and the situation
What is the fastest growing segment of the workforce
Women w children under one
Assumptions of Taylor's scientific management
Motivation affects performance
Workers motivated by money
Average workers need constant supervision
Which leadership style leads to the most productivity?
Autocratic, esp when the work is routine
What personality traits make for effective leadership?
It all depends


the supervisees
the task
the work environment
Describe Japanese management style
Employment - longterm
Decision making - consensual
Responsibility - collective
Promotion - slow
Career path - non-specialized
Employee's organization knowledge - holistic
Describe Hershey & Blanchard's
Situational Leadership Model *
Optimal style depends on worker job maturity

Maturity is a function of ability and willingness to accept responsibility.

Leadership styles vary with task and relationship orientation

Styles include in ascending order
telling - t high; r low
selling - t high; r high
participating - t low; r high
delegating - t low; r low
Role of job evaluation techniques
Determine job worth for salary determination
Identify needs in Maslow's hierarchy

Not supported by research in workplace
Describe Herzberg's 2-factor theory
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are different constructs

Satisfaction is a result of higher order needs (motivators intrinsic t the job) being met, eg challenge, responsibility; absence does not produce dissatisfaction

Dissatisfaction results from the absence of lower order needs (hygiene factors), eg pay, job security; presence does not produce satisfaction

Mixed results in the research
Describe equity theory
Equity exists when contribution/reward ratios are perceived to be equal.

When inequity is perceived, equity is restored by:

mondifying contributions
attempting to alter rewards
altering assessment of ratio
Def: vestibule training
Physical replication of actual work conditions

Lets trainees learn w/o having to worry about safety or slowdowns
Def: critical incidents *
Job behaviors characteristic of very good or very poor performance
Source of organizational inefficiency
Interpersonal dysfunction

(hence interventions target communications)
Def: empirical-rational change strategy for organizations
Assumes people are rational and that given relevant information will act in their self-interest
Def: normative-reeducative change strategy for organizations
Assumes social norms underlie patterns of behavior in organizations

To facilitate change, focus on changing attitudes, values and relationships
Desc: paired comparison technique rating system
Compares each person to every other person
Expensive and time consuming
Results in maximal differentiation among employees
What is the optimal level of anxiety of simple vs complex tasks?
Simple tasks best performed at high levels of anxiety; complex tasks at lower levels
What is the relationship between age and accidents in work settings
They are inversely correlated
Technique to avoid observer drift (decreasing accuracy of ratings over time)
Change or alternate raters
Characteristics of effective leaders (as opposed to managers)
Characteristics of self-directed work teams
Determine own goals
May hire own replacements
Generalists with broad range of skills
Purpose of trainability tests
To determine success in training (not job performance)
Cross cultural validity of job selection tests
While performance on the test may vary by group, tests are generally equally valid
Def: idiosyncratic credits
Akin to brownie points. The concessions to majority opinion on the part of a minority member in order to become a comopetent outsider, and thence be in a position to assume leadership or challenge majority opinion.
Protection for drug users under the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
Protects past addicts as long as they have completed or are enrolled in a drug rehab program and are not currently using
Factors considered in utility analysis
tenure of incumbents
number of openings
difference in validity coefficients
SD of the dollar value of job performance
selection ratio
procedure cost
Describe expectancy theory
Belief that effort (performance) will result in a positive (positve valence) specific outcome (instrumentality)
Def: theme interference
I/O analog to transference

worker displaces past or personal problems onto task / work situation
House's path-goal theory
Optimal leader style varies with the situation but always involves helping workers achieve their goals
Super's theory of vocational development *
Individuals choose occupations based on their self-concept

Self concept predicts job and life satisfaction

Self concept develops in predicable stages
Meaning of feedback in I/O or systems psychology *
disruption of the status quo designed to correct or change a pattern
strongest determinent of employee satisfaction with their leader
task orientation
Compare transformational vs transactional leadership
empower employees
raise their consciousness
guide them thru organizational change

conform to rules and regulations
maintain the status quo
Factors affecting work - family conflict
Extent of involvement in work and family roles

Degree of impermeabily of boundaries between home and work
Consequences of personal organizational fit to the person and organization
Good for the person

Too good a fit for the organization may result in loss of creativity, adaptability to change
Difference between multiple hurtle and multiple cutoff predictors
In both cases all tests must be passed to succeed.

In multiple hurtle tests are administered in order, and failing one puts you out of the running

In multiple cutoff, tests may be administered in any order, but all need to be passed to succeed
Risk factors for burnout
Being an insecure, unfulfilled compulsive workaholic

Being in a dead-end job with little hope of promotion
Desc: Life Career Rainbow
Nine major roles adopted throughout career development, eg student, parent, spouse, worker
Forms of job commitment
Affective - attitude toward organization
Normative - sense of obligation to stay in the company
Continuance - cost of leaving the company
Selection bias
Occurs when a test has different levels of predictability for different groups.

Determined by comparing the regression lines and y intercept.

Different lines would result in different predictions
Method of choice to reduce leniency bias
Forced choice questions
What are the Big Five personality traits?
emotional stability/neuroticism
What is the origin of the Big Five personality traits?
They are derived by a factor analysis of all personality terms found in the dictionary