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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Def: criterion measures
Measures of job performance, begins with job analysis
What tests have the highest validity for job selection?
Job knowledge
What influences incremental validity of a personnel selection test? *
Base rate - % of successful current employees
Selection ratio - % of applicants to be hired
Measure's validity coefficient
Describe the steps in developing a training program
1. Needs analysis, including
organization analysis - is training nec
task analysis - determine elements
person analysis - who needs it

2. Program design

3. Program evaluation
What is the advantage of Personnel Comparison Systems (PCS or ranking)
Reduction in rater bias
Def: halo effect
Tendency to extend judgement of all aspects of behavior on the basis of a single attribute or characteristic
Best way to reduce rater bias
Training in
recognition of multiple contribution
objective evaluation techniques
Def: biodata *
selection tool basedo nthe assumption that he the best predictor of future behavior is past behavior. (among the most valid)

Biographical data inventory including work
personal interests

Can be predictive of job success if correlated w job performance, but is not as good as cognitive tests

However often lacks face validity

Def: criterion contamination (When is it of concern?)
Performance on an objective test biases subjective evaluation (knowledge of predictor performance)
Def: adverse impact
Selection rates for minorities that are not distributed like their distribution in the population

Selection rate of the minority is less than 80% of the majority rate

Exceptions can be made if the business shows the characteristic in question is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ), (e.g., if you only intereview males for a male role in a play) as in job requirements when there are no alternative measures

Legal issue
Calculation of incremental validity
Positive hit rate - base rate
(proportion of positives identified e.g., those who are sick and identified as sick)
Positive hit rate:
% of successful hirees

Base rate:
% of successful current employees


Taylor-Russell tables
Factors considered in the Taylor-Russell tables
Validity coefficient
Base rate
Selection ratio
Def: selection ratio *
Job openings / Applicants

low selection ratio means lots of applicants
Using Taylor-Russell tables, what maximizes incremental validity?
Large validity coefficient
Moderate base rate (.5)
Low selection ratio
Optimal interrelationship among multiple predictors
High correlation w criterion
Low correlation w one another
Desc: Holland's theory of behavior / career choice *
Success is predicted by a congruence between personality and environmental variables

A highly differentiated person scores high on a single type and predicts best outcome for personality and occupational match

but doesn't account for impact of discrimination
What are Holland's personality types? *
Realistic - mechanicalInvestigative - analyticArtistic - expressive, original, introspectiveSocial - people orientedEnterprising - manipulativeConventional - clericalorganized in order around a hexagon; adjacent types being relatively similar to o...
Realistic - mechanical
Investigative - analytic
Artistic - expressive, original, introspective
Social - people oriented
Enterprising - manipulative
Conventional - clerical

organized in order around a hexagon; adjacent types being relatively similar to one another

Behaviorly Anchored Rating Scale

Assessment based on critical incidents
Def 'realistic job preview' and describe its function
It provides an applicant w info about the job.

Goal is to reduce employee disillusionment and turnover.
Describe Theory X leaders
Assume work is distasteful
Most workers lack direction
Workers must be controlled or coerced
Workers are motivated by greed

Closer to scientific management
Describe Theory Y leaders

Work comes naturally
Workers are self-directed, responsible and autonomous

Closer to human relations approach
Under what circumstances (according to Fiedler) is a leader most effective

Leaders describing their least preferred coworker (LPC) in negative terms:

are most effective in situation permitting either little or considerable influence; are task and achievement oriented

Leaders describing their LPC in positive terms

are most effective when moderate control is possible; are primarily relationship oriented

Fiedler believes that leaders' style is fixed and the best you can do is to get a good match between style and the situation
What is the fastest growing segment of the workforce
Women w children under one
Assumptions of Taylor's scientific management
Motivation affects performance
Workers motivated by money
Average workers need constant supervision
Which leadership style leads to the most productivity?
Autocratic, esp when the work is routine
What personality traits make for effective leadership?
It all depends


the supervisees
the task
the work environment
Describe Japanese management style
Employment - longterm
Decision making - consensual
Responsibility - collective
Promotion - slow
Career path - non-specialized
Employee's organization knowledge - holistic
Describe Hershey & Blanchard's
Situational Leadership Model *
Optimal style depends on worker job maturity

Maturity is a function of ability and willingness to accept responsibility.

Leadership styles vary with task and relationship orientation

Styles include in ascending order
telling - t high; r low-low in both ability & willingness
selling - t high; r high- low ability & high willingness
participating - t low; r high-high in ability & low in willingness.
delegating - t low; r low-high in ability & high in willingness
Role of job evaluation techniques
Determine job worth for salary determination
Identify needs in Maslow's hierarchy

Not supported by research in workplace, as far as 5 needs, order of needs, or number that can be activated at one time
Describe Herzberg's 2-factor theory

Satisfaction and motivation

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are different constructs

Satisfaction is a result of higher order needs (motivators intrinsic to the job, e.g.,responsibility, achievement, recognition) being met, challenge, responsibility; absence does not produce dissatisfaction

Dissatisfaction results from the absence of lower order needs (hygiene factors), eg pay, job security; presence does not produce satisfaction

Mixed results in the research
Describe equity theory
Equity exists when contribution/reward ratios are perceived to be equal.

When inequity is perceived, equity is restored by:

mondifying contributions
attempting to alter rewards
altering assessment of ratio
Def: vestibule training
Physical replication of actual work conditions

Lets trainees learn w/o having to worry about safety or slowdowns
Def: critical incidents *
Job behaviors characteristic of very good or very poor performance
Source of organizational inefficiency
Interpersonal dysfunction

(hence interventions target communications)
Def: empirical-rational change strategy for organizations
Assumes people are rational and that given relevant information will act in their self-interest
Def: normative-reeducative change strategy for organizations
Assumes social norms underlie patterns of behavior in organizations

To facilitate change, focus on changing attitudes, values and relationships
Desc: paired comparison technique rating system
Compares each person to every other person
Expensive and time consuming
Results in maximal differentiation among employees
What is the optimal level of anxiety of simple vs complex tasks?
Simple tasks best performed at high levels of anxiety; complex tasks at lower levels
What is the relationship between age and accidents in work settings
They are inversely correlated
Technique to avoid observer drift (decreasing accuracy of ratings over time)
Change or alternate raters
Characteristics of effective leaders (as opposed to managers)
Characteristics of self-directed work teams
Determine own goals
May hire own replacements
Generalists with broad range of skills
Purpose of trainability tests
To determine success in training (not job performance)
Cross cultural validity of job selection tests
While performance on the test may vary by group, tests are generally equally valid
Def: idiosyncratic credits
Akin to brownie points. The concessions to majority opinion on the part of a minority member in order to become a comopetent outsider, and thence be in a position to assume leadership or challenge majority opinion.
Protection for drug users under the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
Protects past addicts as long as they have completed or are enrolled in a drug rehab program and are not currently using
Factors considered in utility analysis


used to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs using a mathmatical equation to estimate the programs return on investment.

U = Utility measured in terms of dollar value

T=number of years the program effects job performance

N= number of people trained

d= effect size of training program in standard deviation units

SD= standard deviation of job performance for untrained employees in dollars
C=per person cost of training

Describe expectancy theory
Belief that effort (performance) will result in a positive (positve valence) specific outcome (instrumentality)
Def: theme interference
I/O analog to transference

worker displaces past or personal problems onto task / work situation
House's path-goal theory
Optimal leader style varies with the situation but always involves helping workers achieve their goals
Super's theory of vocational development *
Life Span: Careerdevelopment occurs over the following five stages of the life span: growth(0-14), Exploration (14-25), Establishment (25-45), Maintenance (45-65),Disengagement (65+). In sequence of stages, each stage must be mastered beforemoving to next.

3) CareerMaturity: Person's ability to cope with developmental tasks of each life stage.4) Life Space:Various social roles person adopts at different points during life span (e.g.,parent, spouse, employee, etc.). *Life-CareerRainbow: Picture that depicts an individual's major life roles to five lifestages. Helps counselee recognize the impact of current and future roles andstages on career planning.*Archway: Depictspersonal and environmental factors that combine to determine career path (e.g.,interests, economy, peer group, etc.).

Meaning of feedback in I/O or systems psychology *
disruption of the status quo designed to correct or change a pattern
strongest determinent of employee satisfaction with their leader
task orientation
Compare transformational vs transactional leadership
empower employees
raise their consciousness
guide them thru organizational change

conform to rules and regulations
maintain the status quo
Factors affecting work - family conflict
Extent of involvement in work and family roles

Degree of impermeabily of boundaries between home and work
Consequences of personal organizational fit to the person and organization
Good for the person

Too good a fit for the organization may result in loss of creativity, adaptability to change
Difference between multiple hurdle and multiple cutoff predictors
In both cases all tests must be passed to succeed.

In multiple hurdle tests are administered in order, and failing one puts you out of the running (saves time and money)

In multiple cutoff, tests may be administered in any order, but all need to be passed to succeed
Risk factors for burnout
Being an insecure, unfulfilled compulsive workaholic

Being in a dead-end job with little hope of promotion inflexible work rules and procedures

Desc: Life Career Rainbow
Nine major roles adopted throughout career development, eg student, parent, spouse, worker
Forms of job commitment

What increases commitment?

Commitment effect on productivity?

AffectiveCommitment: Worker's desire to stay with company due to concern for company'swelfare.

ContinuanceCommitment: Worker's desire to stay with company b/c he/she can't afford toleave.

Highautonomy, interesting work, and job security increase commitment.

Commitmenthas minimal effects on productivity.

High Affectivecommitment related to high motivation and satisfaction, lower absenteeism andturnover, and greater willingness to make sacrifices for company.

Slope bias/differential validity
Occurs when a test has different levels of predictability for different groups.

Determined by comparing the regression lines and y intercept.

Different lines would result in different predictions
Method of choice to reduce leniency bias
Forced choice questions
What are the Big Five personality traits?

Which is the best predictor of job performance?

emotional stability/neuroticism


What is the origin of the Big Five personality traits?
They are derived by a factor analysis of all personality terms found in the dictionary


Job analysis

conducted to clarify the requirements of the job

job evaluation

performed to determine the worth of jobs in order to set the salary

Objective criterion measures

Subjective Criterion measure

Objective: direct quantitative measures such as units produced, sold, number of accidents, absenteeism

Subjective: Supervisor ratings are most reliable, peers best predict training success and subsequent promotions, self rating is less susceptible to halo effect, but most lenient.

Ultimate criterion

actual criterion

Ultimate: Ideal criterion like therapy effectiveness

Actual: The way the performance is measure ie. client satisfaction

Sub criterion measures/categories

relative (comparative) technique

absolute technique

Relative technique: raters compare performance to two or more other employees

Absolute: Provide rating without comparison

Forced distribution

assigning ratees to to a limited number of categories and base on a normal distriburtion on dimensions of the job performance

Paired comparson

rater compares each ratee in pairs on one or more dimensions

Strictness/leniency Bias

Central tendency bias

Halo bias

Rater tends to avoid the middle range of the rating scale

Central tendency bias: raters rate consistently in the middle of the range


frame of reference training (FOR)

Best way to improve rating accuracy is provide training and focus on identifying specific behaviors (critical incidents). Do not train on biases

Incremental validity
Increase in decision making accuracy for employer
Base Rate:
% employees doing okay without a predictor. from 0.0 to 1.0.

Moderate (.50) best Incremental VAlidity
Adverse Impact
80% rule
Differential Validity
Valid for one group, not valid or less valid for another
Lower predictor cutoff, same performance
Incremental validity
Increase in decision making accuracy for employer
Base Rate:
% employees doing okay without a predictor. from 0.0 to 1.0.

Moderate (.50) best Incremental VAlidity
Adverse Impact
80% rule
Differential Validity
Valid for one group, not valid or less valid for another
Lower predictor cutoff, but same validity, same performance
Multiple Regression
Compensatory way of combining predictors. (one predictor can offset others). Can use multiple cut-off then MR to hire as well.
Multiple cutoff
Non–compensatory: Have to get minimums to be considered.
Super: (associated terms)
Self Concept-changes overlifespan, but becomes more stable w/increased age; job satisfaction, stability,& success depend on match b/t job & indiv self-concept;

2) lifespan-5 stages: growth (0-14 yrs), exploration (14-25), establishment(25-45), maintenance (45-65), & disengagement (65+); each stage hasdifferent tasks & ability to accomplish tasks at each stage is called “careermaturity” (assessed by Career Development Inventory);

3) lifespace-various social roles (totalof 9) we adopt at different points during life span (e.g., child, student,citizen, worker);

Life-Career Rainbow relates major life roles to 5 life stages &is useful for helping career counselors recognize impact of current/futureroles & stages on career planning.

Holland (associated terms)
RAISEC: need to match personality to characteristics ofwork environment. More satisfaction,less turnover, more productivity when good person-envir fit. 6 basicpersonality/work envir types: realistic, artistic, investigative, , social, enterprising,& conventional. Person-envir matchis most accurate as predictor of outcomes if person is highly differentiated
personality needs: Occupational choice is linked to personality and basic needs (influenced by Maslow,) Occupationshave 8 basic types & 8 levels. Basic oreintation is toward other people or not toward other people

Job changes have been found to most likely betransitions w/I one of these 8 types, not b/t.

Tiedeman and Ohara
careeridentity development is an aspect of decision and ego identity development (describedin terms of Erikson’s psychosocial stages) & involves achieving a balanceb/t differentiation & integration. It is a decision-making processinvolving 7 stages that constitute 2 phases: anticipation/preoccupation(explore options) & implementation/adjustment (achieved vocational identity& enter workforce).I
Instrumental and associative learning, task approach skills-Behavior/social learning theory:
4 Factors:
Genetic, Environmental, learning, task approach
Career Belief Inventory

social learning theory of career development; person’s career path has4 influencing factors: 1) genetics, 2) envir conditions & events (jobopportunities, technology), 3) learning experiences affecting genetics &envir (instrumental learning, associative learning), & 4) task approachskills are result of interaction b/t other 3 factors (work habits, performanceexpectations). 4 factors determine person’s self-observations & worldviewgeneralizations (beliefs) which influence educational & occupation choices &actions.

Distinguishing feature: Emphasizes continual learning &self-development, not matching indiv characteristics to job.

Brousseau & Driver
"Career Concept"
Decision Dynamic Career model: career decisions are based on one of four career concepts or vision toward ideal career path. Organizations should adopt a pluralistic career culture.


Dynamic career model explanations

emphasis on career concept (indiv’s careerdecisions & motives).

4 career concepts vary in terms of 3 dimensions—freqof job change, direction of change, & type of change in job content:

1) linear career concept-progressive upward movement in terms of authority &responsibility;

2) expert career concept-lifelong commitment to occupational specialty & focus on developing knowledge & skills w/i specialty; 3) spiral career concept-periodic moves across occupational specialties or disciplines; 4) transitory career concept-ideal career as involving freq job changes,often to unrelated fields+

Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)
Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, performance feedback.
Expectancy Theory:
High Expectancy: effort=performance

High Instrumentality: performance = reward

Positive Valence: Reward is desirable
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Goal Setting
Self–Observation– monitor progress
Self–Evaluation–compare bx to goals
Self–Reaction– affective/cognitive reaction to evaluation
Contingency Theory: Fiedler
The LPC thing–
Low LPC = High task
High LPC = high relationship

Situational Favorableness: Amount of influence a leader has: ie, in more structured tasks, with positive relationships, amount of reward power

Low LPC best in extremes– good or bad, High LPC best in moderate situations
Path–Goal (House) Theory
Leaders help line up personal and professional goals
Situational: Hersey & Blanchard
High Task, Low relation
High task, high relation
Low task, high relation
Low task low relation

This should be matched with "job maturity" willing/able to have responsibility
Normative Decision Making (Vroom, Yetton, Jago)
AI Alone
AII– seeks input, decides alone
CI 1–1 consultation
CII Group consultation

Group Tasks: (Steiner)
a: everything added together (computer program)
c: inputs averaged (job rating)
d: select the input of the best member (best project represents the school)
c: limited by worst (first team to climb the mountain)

Group is Better than individual on additive or compensatory tasks, but the same for best member of disjunctive and worst member of conjunctive.
Stages of group development (Tuckman & Jensen 5 stages)

Forming-acquainted and develop rules
Storming-conflict as members resist leader
Norming-members accept gorup and work together to achieve goals
Performing- members accept each others strengths and weaknessess and focus on productivity
Adjourning-group disbands because goals are met
Lewin's Force Field theory of change
Organizations either promote (driving forces) or resist (restraining forces) change.
1. Unfreezing
2. Changing
3. Refreezing
Nadlers THeory of change: (systems modle
Must change 4 things:
1. informal elements (communicaiton, leadership)
2. Formal elements (rules, processes)
3. Individual characteristics
4. Job characteristsics

Change in one will cause change in all...
Quality Circles vs. SMWT
Get informal group to work together on problems and make recommendations and present to managers-increases employee attitudes, but not job performance

SMWT: Do same but actually make decisions. Leadaership rotates
Process consultation
Focus on behaviors and communication style over attitudes. Consultant helpsemployees perceive, understand, and alter processes that undermine interactions


The degree to which a measure of performance is unaffected by measurement error

General mental ability test (GMA)

Job knowledge tests

consistently produce high validity coefficients across jobs and job settings

Job knowledge test: Useful only to when applicants have had previous job training or experience

Interest test

See if their interests match interests of other employees. Easily faked and more reflective of predicting job choice, satisfaction, and persistence

Training program development begins with a needs assessment-Needs assessment (analysis)

1. Idneitfy organizational goals and if determine if it is training is need to achieve goals

2. Job analysis to determine what must be done to perform the job successfully

3. person analysis which employees need training and what skills/knowledge they need to acquire

4. demographic analysis to identify the training needs of different groups of workers (e.g., older versus younger workers)

Principles of effective training



active practice

distributed practice

appropriate learning focus

transfer of training

feedback- ongoing and frequent feedback about their training and most effective when it is provided as soon as possible after target behavior is performed

Overlearning- promotes automaticity

active practice- provide frequent opportunites becasue it is more effective than passively reading

distributed practice- Most effective when it is spaced overtime rather than massed at one time

appropriate learning focus- Whole learning involves representing and practicing the entire task at once and ism ore effective than part learning.

transfer of training- results should result in positive transfer (improvements in actual on-the-job-performance.

vestibule training

physical replication or simulation of the work environment and is useful when on=-the-job training is to costly or dangerous

Evaluation criteria to assess effective training four level (Kirkpatrick)

reaction criteria- participants' reactions (satisfaction)

Learning criteria-how much they learned from the training program

behavioral criteria- assess participants' change in performance when they return to the job

results criteria- were organizational goals met

Contrast effect

Tendency to giveratings based on comparisons to other ratees (e.g., if first three ratees arepoor workers and fourth is mediocre, rater may give mediocre workerexceptionally high rating).


BonaFide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)

Employermust prove that use of a measure is job-related, and that it is required forsafe and efficient operation of the business.

BFOQ: Whencharacteristic in question is essential determinant of the genuineness of a job(e.g., only male actors for male role), or when it maintains communitystandards of propriety (e.g., male restroom attended for male restroom).p

Title VII 1964 civil rights act

ADA act of 1991

Cannot discriminate in hiring

ADA: Companies with 25+employees can not use procedures that discriminate against people with physicalor mental disabilities. When disabled person is able to perform essentialqualities of the job, the employee must provide reasonable accommodations,unless it results in hardship to the employer.

-All pre-employmentprocedures must be directly related to job requirement and can not require medicalexams (drug testing not considered medical exam).

Informal work group norms

Productionabove or below norm resulted in social pressure to conform to by coworkers.

Time in motion study

Identifiedhow workers can complete tasks in less time and with increased efficiency.

Piece-rate system

which workers whoexceed standard of performance are paid more.Money is most important motivator

Theory X and Theory Y (Mcgregor)

X: managers believe employees dislike work and avoid it when possible and must be controlled and directed.

Y: Managers view work as being as natural as play, and assume that employees arecapable of self-control and self-direction. Theory Y is likely to increasemotivation of employees and effectiveness of the organization.

Strong-Campbell Interest Test

KuderOccupational Interest Survey success

Both very susceptible to faking. Research showsinterest tests are more valid for predicting job choice, satisfaction, &persistence than interest or success

Most valid predictor of job success across organizations

General Mental (Cognitive) Ability Tests-

r = .53 to .75

Theory Z

Theory Z (Ouchi): Distinction betweentraditional American (A) and Japanese (J) philosophies. American Japanese Employment duration

Short-term Long-term

Decision-Making Individual ConsensualResponsibility Individual CollectiveEvaluation/Promotion Rapid Slow

Career Path Specialized Non-SpecializedKnowledge of Organization

Segmented Holistic

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Emphasis on product quality. Involves"flattening" of managerial hierarchy, increased teamwork, and reducedratio of managers to non-managers. Also characterized by skill variety, taskvariety, autonomy, task significance, and feedback.


Performance =

Ability + Motivation + Environment


ERG theory (Alderfer)

ERG Theory:Reduced Maslow's needs to three: Existence, relatedness, and growth.

Proposed thatpeople can be motivated by more than one need at a time, and that needs do notalways progress from lower to higher-order. Moreempirical support than Maslow

Need for Achievement (McClelland)


need for achievement, power and affiliation

Used TAT to identify needs underlying job motivation

Need forachievement (nACH) studied the most: Employees with high nACH usually chosetasks of moderate difficulty and risk, prefer frequent and concrete feedback,tend to be preoccupied with a task until it is finished, and prefer to assumepersonal responsibility than to delegate work.

Herzberg- job enrichment, enlargement

Most important for motivation

Job Enlargement:Increase number and variety of tasks. Reduces boredom

Job Enrichment:Greater responsibility, freedom, autonomy, and control. Works best with highnACH employees.


social loafing

When a person exerts less effort acting in a team than when working alone. Can be corrected by recognizing contribution and reward.

Occurs when the group is large and the task is additive

social facilitation

Presence of others increases task performance (usually on simple or familiar tasks)

Associations of homogeneity in group and heterogeneity in group

Homogeneity in group- greater cohesiveness and better performance on simple tasks

Heterogeneity- greater creativity and better decision-making

Decision Making Models (SIMON)

Rational Economic Model

Bounded rationality model

Rational Economic Model: Decision makers maximize benefits by searching and considering all alternatives before selecting optimal ones

Bounded rationality model: That "satisfice" and select the first decision that meets the minimum criteria of acceptability (due to limited capabilities, resources, and time)

Compressed work week is associated with


improved employee attitude

flex: Choice of when to begin and end work, adn does not affect productivity

Worker at high risk for stress related illness

Assembly-line Worker who is machine paced

Dawes and Lofquist- theory of job adjustment. Satisfaction depends on...

The degree to which characteristics of the job correspond to the workers needs and values

Voluntary arbitration



V: Agree to enter into arbitration, but not to agree

Binding: Agree to therms of the arbitrator before the process begins

Conventional arbitration: The arbitrator can choose any solution

Dimensions of National Culture (Hofstede)

Power Distance:Extent to which people accept an unequal distribution of power.UncertaintyAvoidance: Willingness or ability of people to tolerate ambiguity anduncertainty.

Individualism:Extent to which individuals are the basis of the social system.

Masculinity: Valueplaced on assertiveness, independence, and competitiveness. Long-TermOrientation: Extent to which people focus on the future.

Levels of Organizational Culture (Schein)

Observable Artifacts: 1st level: Dress code, stories,rituals, etc.

EspousedValues and Beliefs: 2nd level:Organization's norms, goals, and ideologies.

Basic UnderlyingAssumptions (2rd and deepest level): Unconscious perceptions, beliefs, thoughts, and emotions. Theseare conceptualized as cognitive defense mechanisms that provide stability andmeaning and reduce uncertainty. Unfortunately, they also contribute toresistance to change.servic5y|

Person-organization fit

what is it associated with?

How is it achieved?

Mentors-hip has positive effect on PO fit

Extent to which values held by specific individuals match those of the organizations.

Achieved-socialization process and selection

good fit associated with satisfaction, motivation, and organizational commitment, low level of stress, and voluntary turnover.

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Highest levels of learning and performance are associated with moderate arousal, especially on moderate level task difficulty (inverted U-Shape)

Demand-control (job strain) model (Karasck)

Job demand (workload, time pressure, responsibility) and job control (decision of latitude of autonomy and discretion for using different skills) primarily contribute to job stress

High job demand and low control is associated with emotional exhaustion, depression, heath problems

Hours of greatest fatigue

Forward shift rotation

4th and 8th

Forward roation: moving day to evening or evening to night has less effect on circadian rhythm

swing shift: the night shift hasmost effect, most problems, but are freedom of choice reduces it.

person-machine fit (human factor/general systems theory)

Goals of this are to...

Performance is the result of an interaction between people and machines and any failure is due to a mismatch.

Goals: ensure workers fit the job through effective selection and training and the job fits the capabilities and limitations of the worker through tasks, equipment, and environment.