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410 Cards in this Set

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When can the Ethics Committee act "sua sponte" (on it's own, without a complaint)?
Less than one year after it discovered that any of the following actions became final: A felony conviction, a finding of malpractice, expulsion or suspension from a state association for unethical conduct, or de-licensure by a state board.
What are the adjutication options for the Ethics Committee?
1) Dismiss the charges
2) Recommend a sanction less than formal charges
3) Issue formal charges
4) Offer stipulated resignation
What is the formal name for the Ethics Code?
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
What does the Ethics Code consist of?
1) Introduction and Applicability
2) Preamble
3) Five General Principles (A-E)
4) Specific Ethical Standards
What does the Introduction and Applicability section of the Ethics Code discuss?
The intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code
What is the purpose of the Preamble and the General Principles?
They are inspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology. They are NOT rules.
What is the purpose of the Ethical Standards?
They set forth ENFORCEABLE rules for conduct as psychologists
What part of a psychologist's life does the Ethics Code apply to?
Only applied to activities that are part of their scientific, educational, or professional roles as psychologists.
What does the term "reasonable" refer to in the Ethics Code?
The prevailing professional judgment of psychologists engaged in similar activities in similar circumstances, given the knowledge the psychologist had or should have had at the time.
When will the Ethics Committee investigate a complaint related to a psychologist's personal conduct?
Wehn it affects his/her role as a psychologist or the public's trust in the field of psychology.
When can't standards that relate to Reporting Ethical Violations be reported to state or national committees, licensing boards, or appropriate institutional authorities?
a) When an intervention would violate confidentiality rights

b) When psychologists have been retained to review the work of another psychologist whose professional conduct is in question.
Is it possible to request a deferment of adjudication of an ethics complaint pending the outcome of litigation?
What should psychologists do when conflicts occur between the requirements of laws, regulations, and the Ethical Standards?
Make known their commitment to the Ethics Code and take steps to resolve the conflict in a responsible manner.
When you are contacted by an ethics committee in response to a complaint from a client, do you always have to cooperate fully?
Yes. Confidentiality is not an issue since the committee must obtain a signed waiver of confidentiality from the complainant before it takes any action.
What should be done when a psychologist SUSPECTS that a personal problem may interfere with effectiveness?
What should be done when a psychologist KNOWS that a personal problem may interfere with effectiveness?
Refer and/or temporarily suspend practice
Prior to conducting assessments, psychologists must, in most cases, obtain informed consent. The exceptions including:
1) When testing is mandated by law
2) Informed consent is implied b/c it is conducted as a routine activity (i.e., when participants are applying for a job)
3) When one purpose of the testing is to evaluate the individual's capacity to make decisions
The term insanity is not a psychological term. It is a legal term that refers to:
A defendant's ability to distinguish between right and wrong at the time a crime was committed
A psychological service unit is:
The functional unit through which psychological services are provided
The purpose of the Specialty Guidelines is to educate the public, the profession, and interested third parties (i.e., insurance companies) as to APA's policies in:
Clinical, counseling, school, and industrial/organizational areas, and to "facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession."
The Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services were adopted as a means of self-regulation to protect the public interest. They specify:
The minimally acceptable levels of quality assurance and performance that providers of those psychological services covered by the standards must reach or exceed.
The purpose of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is:
To provide criteria for the evaluation of tests, testing practices, and the effects of test use.
Primary standards are:
Those standards that should be met by all tests before their operational use, and in all test users, unless a sound professional reason is available to show why it is not necessary, or technically feasible, to do so in a particular case.
Secondary standards are:
Stands which are desirable, but are likely to be beyond reasonable expectation in many situations.
Conditional standards are:
Standards that are considered primary for some situations and secondary for others.
Privilege is a legal term that refers to:
A client's right to prevent confidential information from being released in a legal proceeding.
Structural Theory
Psyche divided into id, ego, superego
The id
- Governed by the pleasure principle

- Source of sexual and aggressive drives
The Ego
- Governed by the reality principle and functions to defer id gratification in accordance w/environmental demands
The Superego
Serves as the consceince and comes from internalization of societal and parental restrictions
Purpose of Defense Mechanisms
To prevent the conscious activation of a conflict between the ego and the id
Defenses include
Repression, denial, reaction formation, rationalization, projection, displacement, fixation, sublimation, projective identification, splitting, intellectualizing, and undoing
Primary Process Thinking
Unconscious mental processes (seen in dreams, slips of the tongue, and jokes)
Secondary Process Thinkning
Conscious mental processes (logical and sequential, and function according to the reality principle)
Goal of psychoanalysis
Engender insight into the unconscious and to strenthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality.
Techniques of psychoanalysis
Catharsis, interpretation, working through (assimilation of insights into the personality), parallel process
What is Parallel Process?
A process that involves the transference phenomenon whereby a counselor will respond to his or her supervisor in a way that parallels the manner in which a client responds to the counselor
Classical Freudian theory postulates a psychic structure divided into 3 parts:
id, ego, superego
The id includes:
-All instincts and reflexes that are inherited at birth (biological drives)
-Self preservation instincts
-Aggressive drives
The id is a completely unorganized reservoir of energy dominated by:
The pleasure principle
The pleasure principle is:
The instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain
The ego is that part of the id that has been modified by its interaction with the external world. It represents:
The reality priniciple
Reality Principle
The ego's control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world
The ego:
The logical, ordered aspect of personality. The organizational, critical, and synthesizing ability of the ego makes reason and judgment possible.
The superego:
A result of the child satisfactorily passing through the Oedipal developmental stage
The superego:
Acts as the conscience. The moral and judicial aspects of the superego come larely from internalization of parental restrictions, prohibitions, and customs.
Early psychoanalytic theory emphasized conflict as the basic dynamic of personality. The ego is in constant conflict with:
The id, the superego, and reality.
If the ego gives in to the id's demands:
The ego is punished by a sense of guilt from the superego
If the ego doesn't give in to the id:
There is constant pressure until some satisfactory outlet is found
Defense mechanisms are employed by the ego in order to:
Relieve pressures of the drives
Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness
Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring
Reaction formation
Reduces anxiety by taking up the opposite feeling, impulse or behavior. Ex.: treating someone you strongly dislike in an excessively friendly manner in order to hide your true feelings
Involves explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner, avoiding the true reasons for the behavior
Involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people
Allows us to avoid thinking about the stressful, emotional aspect of the situation and instead focus only on the intellectual component
Iinvolves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening
Allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form
Projective Identification
A psychological process in which a person engages in the ego defense mechanism projection in such a way that their behavior towards the object of projection invokes in that person precisely the thoughts, feelings or behaviors projected.
The arresting of part of the libido at an immature stage, causing an obsessive attachment
Negative and positive impulses are split off and unintegrated
To 'undo' an unhealthy, destructive or otherwise threatening thought or action by engaging in contrary behavior
According to psychoanalytic theory, anxiety signals the breakdown of:
The defensive structure
Signal anxiety
An ego mechanism that results in activation of defensive operations to protect the ego from being overwhelmed by an excess of excitement. The anxiety reaction that was originally experienced in a traumatic situation is reproduced in an attenuated form, allowing defenses to be mobilized before the current threat does, in fact, become overwhelming.
Signal Anxiety
Indicates an impulse is seeking expression
Primary Process is governed by the id, the ego, or the superego?
The id
Secondary Process is governed by the id, the ego, or the superego?
The ego (the conscious part of the ego)
Free Association
Patients lie on a counch, attend to all thoughts and report them without suppressing or censuring
When patients are unable to recall the traumatic memories that gave rise to their symptoms
The phenomenon of having a distorted perception of another, based on ones past significant relationships
Repetition compulsion
The repeating of one's feelings and affects from the past in the present
Zetzel called positive transference:
Therapeutic alliance
Greenson called positive transference:
Working alliance
A therapist's inappropriate reactions to the patient based on his or her own enactment of personal needs and resistance to the treatment
In psychoanalysis, the purpose of interpretation is:
To increase the client's insight into unconscious mental content that is connected to current feelings and behaviors
In psychoanalysis, a working alliance is a positive feeling toward the therapist that is motivated by a realistic wish to:
Progress in therapy
Psychodynamic therapy focuses on
Psychological forces and conflict within the individual
Jung's Analytical Psychology
The personal unconscious contains repressed material, while the collective unconscious consists of archetypes, or universally shared predispositions toward feeling, thinking, and perceiving
The personal unconscious
Contains repressed material
The collective unconscious
Consists of archetypes, or universally shared predispositions toward feeling, thinking, and perceiving
Adler's Individual Psychology
Believed that pathological behavior represents a maladaptive and defensive attempt to overcompensate for feelings of inferiority
According to Adler, when a child adopts compensatory patters on behavior as defense mechanisms, the result is:
A socially-maladaptive style of life
The goal of Adlerian therapy is:
To help a client replace a mistaken style of life
Neo-Freudians include who?
Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Erich Fromm
Neo-Freudians emphasize:
Social and cultural determinants of personality
Karen Horney focused on:
Sullivan emphasized:
The importance of relationships throughout the lifespan
Fromm was interested in:
The effects of societal structures and dynamics on personality
Some popular Ego-Analysts include:
Anna Freud and Heinz Hartmann
Ego-Analysts place greater emphasis on:
The ego's role in personality development and pathology. They focus on the non-defensive functions of the ego, and believed that pathology results when the ego loses its autonomy from the id
Popular Object Relations theorists:
Mahler, Winnicott, Kernberg, Fairburn
Object Relations Theory focuses on:
Internal representations of self or others, which are called introjects.
Internal representations of self or others
According to object-relations theory, an emotionally impoverished childhood environment leads to:
Problems related to the formation of introjects; In turn, the damaged or weak introjects result in interpersonal and intrapersonal difficulty, such as splitting and an unstable self-image
Analytic or Complex psychology was established by:
Carl Jung
According to Jung, the unconscious exists on two levels. They are called:
The individual (or personal) unconscious and the collective unconscious
Individual (or personal) unconscious arises from:
Collective unconscious refers to the part of a person's unconscious which is common to all:
Human beings
The collective unconscious contains:
Latent, inherited memories of one's cultural past, archetypes, and prehuman memories
According to Jung, archetypes are:
Motifs, images or symbols that exist prior to experience
According to Jung, the four main forms of archetypes are:
The Self, the Shadow, the Anima, and the Animus
Jung's analytic therapy is aimed at:
Bringing unconscious contents to consciousness
According to Jung, the more aware of the personal unconscious one becomes:
The more of the collective unconscious is revealed and one's psyche internally self-regulates and neurosis resolves
Trait Theory:
In psychology, Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior.
Extraversion reflects:
A turning outward
Adler believed that children adopt "compensatory patterns of behaviors" as defense mechnisms in order to overcome:
Feelings of inferiority
Adler's concept of "compensatory actions" is also referred to as:
"Style of life"
Adler believes that the neurotic, psychotic, and delinquent are striving to overcome:
Feelings of inferiority through unproductive lifestyles
Adlerian psychotherapy can be divided into how many stages?
Adlerian psychotherapy can be divided into how many phases?
What do the stages of Adlerian psychotherapy represent?
Progressive strategies for awakening a client's underdeveloped feeling of community
The goal of Adlerian psychotherapy is:
To help a client replace a "mistaken style of life" with a healthier and more adaptive one
Adlerian therapy focuses on:
Exploring with patients the determinants of their life styles (such as family atmosphere, distorted beliefs and attitudes, birth order) and integrates the interpretation of dreams, resistances, and transferences.
The use of role-plays in Adlerian psychotherapy is to:
Help develop new behavior
Name two programs that are based on Adler's approach:
STET (Systemic Training for Effective Teaching) and STEP (Systemic Teaching for Effective Parenting)
The neo-Freudians downplayed:
The importance of instinctual forces
The neo-Freudians focused on:
Social and cultural determinants of personality
Karen Horney proposed that certain parental behaviors (e.g. indifference, overprotection, rejection) cause the child to experience:
Basic anxiety - a feeling of helplessness and isolation in a hostile world
Horney believed that to defend against basic anxiety, children:
Adopt certain modes of relating to others
Horney's "modes of relating to others" include:
Movement toward others, movement against others, or movement away from others
The healthy individual, according to Horney, does WHAT with the three modes of relating to others?
Intengrates them
Sullivan recognized the role of cognitive experience in:
Personality development
Sullivan identified 3 modes of cognitive experience which develop sequentially in the infant:
1) Prototaxic mode
2) Parataxic mode
3) Syntaxic mode
Protaxic mode refers to:
The experiences before language symbols are used and involves discrete, unconnected momentary states. It occurs in the first months of life and may characterize the experience of schizophrenics.
Parataxic mode refers to:
Involves private or autistic symbols. The person sees causal connections between events that are not actually related. The connections serve the developing self and reduce anxiety.
Syntaxic Mode:
Involves symbols that have shared meaning and logical, sequential, and consistent thinking. It emergest at around the end of the 1st year of life and underlies language aquistion
Sullivan believed that neurotic behavior is often caused by:
Parataxic distortions, which occur as a result of arrest at the parataxic mode
Parataxic distortions occur when:
The individual deals with others as if they were significant persons from his or her early life.
What did Fromm emphasize in personality development?
The role of societal factors (How society prevents individuals from realizing their true nature)
Fromm identified five character styles that a person may adopt in response to the demands of society. They are:
The receptive, the exploitative, the hoarding, the marketing, and the productive (only the productive style permits a person to realize his true human nature)
Ego-analysts include:
Anna Freud, David Rappaport, and Heinz Hartmann
Ego-analysts emphasize:
The ego's role in personality dev't.
Ego-analysts distinguish between two ego functions:
Ego-defensive functions and ego-autonomous fountions
Ego-defensive functions are involved in:
The resolution of conflict
Ego-autonomous functions include:
Adaptive, non-conflict laded functions such as learning, memory, speech, and perception
Ego-analysts view healthy behavior as:
Under conscious control
How does ego-analysis differ from classical psychoanalysis?
It places more emphasis on current experiences, less on transference and provides opportunities for "reparenting" and focuses on helping the client build more adaptive defenses.
According to Object-Relations theory, an "object introject" is:
The mental representation of a person (either the self or another)
According to Object Relations theory, in a healthy environment, the infant's ego comes to develop representations of:
Itself and others
(Obj. Rel) By what age does the infant's ego come to a self-idenity and a level of ego strength that is needed to be able to maintain a representation of another person (object):
(Ob-Rel) If a person's age-appropriate development is delayed or skewed, the mental representations of the self and other people:
Remain at an infantile or early childhood level
(Obj Rel) People who have poor early caretaking do what to their representations of other people?
A major difference between Freudian and neo-Freudian therapists is that neo-Freudians place a heavier emphasis on:
Social and cultural determinants of personality
Freudian and neo-Freudian therapists is that Freudians place a heavier emphasis on:
Intrapsychic determinants of personality
In Jungian therapy, a client who projects aspects of the personal and collective unconscious onto the therapist would be displaying:
Did Jung also recognize the importance of transference in the therapy setting?
Yes. However, his conception of the unconscious differed from Freud's. Jung believed that the unconscious includes both a personal and collective (or shared) component.
Sullivan's concept of paratoxic distortion is most similar to the Freudian notion of:
Transference. Parataxic distortions occur when an individual deals with others as if they were significant persons from his early life.
From the perspective of ego-psychology, psychopathology results when the ego:
loses its autonomy from the id
Client-Centered Therapy is based on:
The notion that clients' maladjustment stems from a discrepancy between the real self and the ideal self.
Client-Centered Therapy believes that change occurs through:
An environment in which a therapist provides unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness
Existential Therapy focuses on:
Conflict between the individual and the "ultimate concerns" of existence.
The goal fo Existential Therapy is:
To reduce neurotic anxiety
The goal of Gestalt Therapy is:
To engender full awareness of self, environment, and the self-environment interaction
According to Gestalt Therapy, awareness leads to:
Integration into a coherent gestalt, or whole
Techniques of Gestalt Therapy include:
Directed awareness, "I" statements, dream analysis, and the empty chair technique
Reality therapy's basic goal is:
To encourage the client to take responsibility for present behavior and feelings
Reality therapy believes that change occurs when:
The client's "failure idenity" is replaced by a "success identity"
Transactional Analysis aims to:
Simplify the client's understanding of unhealthy interactions
Transactional analysis assumes that there are three distinct ego states that all people function within. They are:
The child, the adult, and the parent
The goal of Transactional Analysis is:
To get people to understand their patterns of behavior and let their adult ego state take control of transactions
Feminist Therapy maintains that many of the problems reported by women who seek therapy are due to:
Sexism and gender-based oppression
The emphasis of feminist therapy is to:
Model and support alternative social roles and options
Humanistic approaches have been referred to as:
"The third-force" in clinical psychology
Humanistic approaches differ from psychodynamic/CBT (which rely on deterministic views of personality) by:
Approaching stress individuality and the inherent capacity for growth and change
Carl Roger's created what type of therapy?
Rogers' client-centered therapy is based on the notion that:
We all have a self-actualizing tendency, or a capacity for natural growth, constructive change, and self-understanding, that guides and motivates us.
Rogers believed it was necessary for the self to be organized, unified, and whole for growth/change/understanding to occur. When there is a conflict between the self-concept and the person's experience it's called:
An incongruence
According to Roger's, incongruencies are:
selectively perceived, distorted, or denied since the need to maintain a positive view of the self is crucial
Incongruencies can lead to maladjustments, which leaves the person vulnerable to:
anxiety, threat, and disorganization
The goal of client-centered therapy is:
To decrease the incongruence between the real self and the ideal self and realize the capacity for self-actualization
Rogers believes there are three facilitative conditions that result in growth. They are:
Accurate empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard, and congruence/genuineness
Accurate empathic understanding:
Refers to the degree to which the therapist is able to empathize with the client, encouraging change by viewing the world the same way and conveying that to the client
Unconditional positive-regard:
Refers to the therapist truly caring about the client, affirming the client's value as a person, and accepting the client without judgment.
Refers to the therapist being genuine, honest, and showing congruence between words and actions. Incongruence or lack of genuiness can lead to a lack of trust.
Existential psychotherapy holds that personality is an outgrowth of:
The struggle between the individual and the "ultimate concerns" of existence (death, isolation, etc.)
Existential psychologists distinguish between two types of anxiety:
1) normal anxiety ("existential anxiety"
2) neurotic anxiety
Normal anxiety, unlike neurotic anxiety, is:
1) proportionate to its cause 2) does not require require repression
3) can be used constructively as a catalyst to identify and confront the dilemma from which it arose
According to existential theory, Neurotic anxiety is the result of:
Not facing normal, or existential anxiety
According to existential theory, neurotic anxiety commonly manifests as:
A loss of a subjective sense of free will and an inability to take responsibility for one's own life
The goals of existential therapy are:
1) Eliminate neurotic anxiety to the degree possible
2) Help the client learn to tolerate the unavoidable existential anxiety of living
Techniques of existential therapy include:
1) Identifying instances when the patient avoids responsibility for his/her life
2) Helping the patient to reconsider options and make decisions
3) Point out how grief reactions and sadness about life milestones are related to underlying fears of isolation and death
The goal for client-therapist relationship, according to existential theory, is:
To develop an authentic and intimate relationship between the therapist and the client
Logotherapy is a form of existential therapy developed by:
Victor Frankl
Logotherapy postulates the primary motivational force in human beings is:
The search for a meaning in life
Frankl's basic beliefs regarding the philosophy of Logotherapy include:
1) Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable ones
2) Our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life
3) We have freedom to find meaning in what we do and what we experience
What are the three tenets (or "cornerstones") of existential analysis?
Freedom of will, will to meaning and the meaning of life
Gestalt Therapy was developed by who?
Fritz Perls
Gestalt therapy focuses on:
The here and now
The here and now encourages clients to:
Gain awareness and fully experience the present
Gestalt therapy is mased on the idea that each person is capable of:
Assuming responsiblity and living fully as a whole, integrated person
In the term "Figure-Ground", what does each word represent?
Figure: What a person is paying attention to

Ground: What a person is not noticing
Perl's "Gestalt Therapy" views it's theory of personality on:
"The Self" and "The Self-Image"
According to Gestalt Therapy, "The Self" promotes:
Actualization, growth, and awareness
According to Gestalt Therapy, "The Self-Image" imposes:
External standards on the self and impairs self-actualization and growth
(Gestalt Therapy): Perls used the term "contact" to refer to:
Interacting with nature and others without losing one's individuality
(Gestalt Therapy): Resistances to contact, or "boundary disturbances", are:
The defenses that one develops as a self-protective attempt to avoid the anxiety necessitated by change and prevents full experiencing in the present
What are the "resistances to contact" or "boundary disturbances" that may result in a person who is more controlled by the self-image than then self (Gestalt Tx)?
Introjection, projection, retroflection, deflection, confluence, and isolation
(Gestalt Therapy)
What is Introjection?
Uncritcally absorbing information without actually understanding or assimilating it (child accepting parent's beliefs)
(Gestalt Therapy)
What is projection?
As in psychoanalyic theory, projection involves attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or behaviors to someone else
(Gestalt Therapy)
What is retroflection?
A substitution of self for the environment, in which a person does to him/herself what he/she wants to do to others
(Gestalt Therapy)
What is deflection?
The avoidance of contact and/or awareness by being vague, indirect, or overly polite
(Gestalt Therapy)
What is Confluence?
The result of a too thin or permeable boundary between self and environment; a person does not experience self as distinct. Rather, the self is merged into the beliefs, attitudes, and feelings of others
(Gestalt Therapy)
What is isolation?
In isolation, the awareness of a boundary between self and environment becomes nonexistent, and all understanding of the importance of others for the self is lost
From the perspective of Gestalt Therapy, awareness is everything. As we become aware of our needs...
we organize our behavior toward meeting those needs
(Gestalt Therapy)
A fully aware person is one who is:
Able to interpret the present situation and appropriately self-regulate the boundaries between self and environment
What is the goal of Gestalt Therapy?
Awareness of the environment, the self, and the nature of the self-environment boundary
According to Gestalt Therapy, rather than working through the origins of an issue, such as transference, the therapist:
Treats it as a fantasy getting in the way of true self-awareness
What are some techniques used when practicing Gestalt Therapy?
"I" statements, dream analysis, and the empthy chair technique
Who developed Reality Therapy?
Reality Therapy is based on "Choice Therapy", which emphasizes personal responsibility and balance of 5 basic needs:
1) Survival
2) To love and belong
3) Power
4) Freedom
5) Fun
(Reality Therapy)
Basic Need: SURVIVAL
Needs such as breathing, digesting, and sweating
(Reality Therapy)
Such as the need for friends and family
(Reality Therapy)
Basic Need: POWER
Such as the need for esteem, recognition, and competition
(Reality Therapy)
Basic Need: FREEDOM
Such as the need to make choices
(Reality Therapy)
Basic Need: FUN
Need for play, laughter, learning, and recreation
(Reality Therapy)
When an individual is able to meet his needs responsibily (in a realistic way in which the rights of others are not infringed upon), the person has:
A "success identity"
(Reality Therapy)
When a person meets his or her needs in an irresponsble manner, the person has adopted:
A "failure identity"
How does change occur, according to Reality Therapy?
When the client's "failure identity" is replaced by a "success identity"
What is the basic idea of Reality Therapy?
Focusing the client on present behavior, enabling him or her to be realistic in fulfilling his or her needs without harming self or others, and encouraging him or her to take responsibility for his/her actions
What are some techniques used in Reality Therapy?
Humor, Role Playing, Confronting the client, Formulating plans
Reality therapy uses the WDEP system. What does each letter stand for?
W: Exploring the clients wants/perceptions.
D: Direction or what they are doing (acting, thinking, feeling) to get what they want
E: Evaluate whether client's behavior is getting him closer or further from goal
P: Planning or creating and implementing a workable plan to make positive changes
Can Reality Therapy be used similarly to Adlerian Therapy to be applied to settings such as schools/institutions?
Yes (i.e., Glasser's SWF: School Without Failure) program
Who developed Transactional Analysis?
Eric Berne
Transactional Analysis is based on two notions. What are they?
1) We have functional ego-states to our personality
2) The internal models converse with one another in transactions inter and intrapersonally
Define EGO STATES according to Transactional Analysis
The child, the parent, and the adult. An ego state is activated at any point in time and interactions and communications between, or among, people (transactions) are predominantly between ego states
Define STROKES according to Transactional Analysis
A unit of interpersonal contact or recognition that takes place between ego states at two levels (social and covert). Strokes can be positive or negative.
Define SCRIPTS according to Transactional Analysis
Refers to a person's life plan. It is developed early through interactions w/parents & others, and reflects the person's characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes. An unhealthy script leads to maladaptive behavior.
Define "LIFE POSITIONS" according to Transactional Analysis:
Refers to the view a person has of one self in relation other people around him, primarily as a result of experiences w/parents during childhook
What are the four main existential life positions according to Transactional Analysis?
1) I'm ok - you're ok (healthy life position all children start off with)
2) I'm ok - you're not ok
3) I'm not ok - you're ok
4) I'm not ok - you're not ok
Define "TRANSACTIONS" according to Transactional Analysis:
Refers to the communication exchanges between people. Three types of communications, or transactions, between the three ego states include: Complementary, crossed, and ulterior
Describe Complementary Transactions according to Transactional Analysis:
Can occur among any combination of ego states and involve the original communication being met with the appropriate response
Why was Self-In-Relation theory developed?
To better understand the experience and development of the self in women, although it has also been considered useful for understanding male development
What does "mutuality" in Self-In-Relation Theory refer to?
The notion of mutuality refers to relationships being viewed as reciprocal, in which both affect the other, and are affected by the other
Diagnosis in client-centered therapy is:
Discouraged b/c it focuses attention on a particular disorder
Client-centered therapy:
Client-centered therapy attempts to put the focus ont he client's interpersonal skills, utilizing an effective cleint-therapist interaction in creating positive change
Rogers viewed diagnosis and treatment as:
Being too rigid b/c attention is paid to the specific disorder and not to the person in general
How do Gestalt therapists deal with transference?
By redirecting the client from the "fantasy" of the transference to the reality of the here-and-now
A fundamental tenet of feminist therapy is de-mystification of and equality in the doctor-patient relationship. Thus, a feminist therapist would most likely consider a woman to be:
The expert on her own problems
Beck's Cognitive Therapy (CT):
Attempts to identify and modift dysfunctional cognitions - including automatic thoughts, logical errors, and underlying assumptions ("schema") - that cause maladaptive behavior and emotional responding
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET):
Based on the premise that maladaptive behavior stems from irrational beliefs about life events; the therapy attempts to modify these beliefs and replace them with more appropriate, rational ones
Self-Control Techniques:
Involve the self-administration of treatment procedures. They include self-monitoring and stimulus control
Stress Inoculation Training:
A procedure used to treat aggressive or implusive behavior. 3 steps: 1) educate client as to how faulty cognitions prevent appropriate and adaptive coping; 2) client rehearses new skills and new ways of thinking about stressful situations; 3) client applies what he has learned to real/imagined situations
A state of relaxed wakefulness, with a relative suspension of peripheral awareness. Used as an adjunct in the treatment of disorders and symptoms such as dissociative conditions, fugue states, PTSD, cigarette smoking, overeating, and substance abuse
Patient is attached to an apparatus that measures a physiological response. Patient given continuous feedback about this response and asked to modify it.
Paradoxical Intention:
Involves instructing clients to do the things they fear
Guided Imagery:
Imagery techniques used to help with the reduction of anxiety and compulsive behaviors
Cognitive therapy is premised on the notion that how one thinks largely determines:
How one feels and behaves
Automatic Thoughts:
Spontaneous thoughts that arise in response to specific stimuli or situations and reflect one's appraisal of a situation rather than the situation itself
Schema (Core Beliefs or Underlying Assumptions):
Internal models of the self and the world that develop over the course of experiences beginning in early life and which facilitate more efficient information processing
Cognitive Distortions
Systematic errors in reasoning that form the link b/t dysfunctional schemas and automatic thoughts
Beck's Six Cognitive Distortions:
1) Arbitrary Inference
2) Selective Abstraction
3) Overgeneralization
4) Magnification and Minimization
5) Personalization
6) Dichotomous Thinking
What is the cognitive triad?
Negative thoughts about the self, the future, and the world
According to CT, how do depressed and anxious individuals differ in their cognitions?
1) In depression, cognitions about hopelessness, low self-esteem, and failure are more common; in anxiety, themes are usually related to anticipated harm or danger
2) Depressed patients are more likely to have absoluate thoughts about negative themes, while anxious individuals tend to have questioning thoughts about the uncertainty of future events
Describe "Eliciting Automatic Thoughts"
Involves questioning the client about automatic thoughts that occur in upsetting situation and asking the client to keep a daily log of the automatic thoughts
Describe "Decatastrophizing"
Also known as the "what if" technique, involving helping patients devise specific strategies for dealing with feared consequences
Describe "Reattribution"
Involves considering alternative causes of events
Define "Redefining"
Involves restating a problem in terms that emphasize the patient's control of it and often involves making a problem more concrete, specific, and stating it in terms of the patient's own behavior
What is the purpose of "homework"?
Allows the patient to apply cognitive principles b/t sessions. Typical assignments focus on self-observation and self-monitoring, structuring time effectively, and dealing with specific situations
What does "activity scheduling" involve?
Planning the patient's daily activities, with an emphasis on behaviors that increase the patient's sense of mastery and pleasure
What are "Graded Task Assignments"?
Assignments that involve small sequential steps that become more difficult and eventually lead to a desired goal
What does "Hypothesis Testing" involve?
Experimental tests of predictions that derive from the patient's automatic thoughts
What does "Behavioral rehearsal and role-playing" involve?
Practicing skills or technique in session and later applying in-vivo.
What do "Diversion Techniques" include?
Physical activity, social contact, work, play, and visual imagery (used to reduce strong emotions and decrease negative thinking)
Rational Emotive Therapy, beveloped by Ellis, is based on his "ABC" theory of human disturbance, the element of which are:
A - People experience undesirable events
B - They have rational and irrational beliefs about these events
C - They create appropriate emotional and behavioral consequences w/their rational beliefs or inappropriate and dysfunctional consequences w/their irrational belief
What does RET attempt to modify?
Irrational beliefs about life events
What are some methods of helping clients identify irrational beliefs according to RET?
Direct confrontation of irrational beliefs, contingency contracting, in-vivo desensitization, response prevention, and psychoed
RET vs. CT
1) RET holds that irrational thoughts lead to maladaptive behavior; CT holds that thoughts are dysfunctional when they interfere w/normal cognitive processing & not necessarily b/c they are irrational
2) RET is more heavily behavioral
3) In RET the therapist is more likely to directly challenge a patient's dysfunctional beliefs, while in CT, the patient is usually encouraged to test out these beliefs on his own
Self-Control Techniques applies to those techniques in which the client is give:
An active role in administering the treatment to himself. Includes: self-monitoring, stimulus control, self-reinforcement, and self-punishment
What is Meichenbaum known for developing?
Stress inoculation training
What are the three steps to Stress Inoculation Training?
1) Cognitive preparation (education)
2) Skills acquisition
3) Practice (application)
Beck: CT
Views pathology as being caused by automatic thoughts, logical errors, and dysfunctional schemata
Ellis: RET
Contends that patient's problems are caused by too many "shoulds" and "musts" in their belief system
In the terminology of general systems theory, a disruption to the family's homeostasis is referred to as:
Positive Feedback
In the terminology of general systems theory, positive feedback:
Encourages changes that disrupt family homeostasis and deviate from the status quo
In the terminology of general systems theory, negative feedback occurs when:
Change is discouraged and homeostasis in maintained
Double-Bind communications occurs when:
Two parts of the same communication contradict each other and causes frustration to the person receiving the message
Extended family systems therapy is most concerned with:
Increasing differentiation of self among all family members. A lack of differentiation leads to triangulation, emotional cutoff, and other problems.
A family system with diffuse boundaries is likely to be:
Enmeshed (leading to autonomy being impossible)
A family system with rigid boundaries is likely to be:
Disengaged (leading to isolation)
Operant Interpersonal Therapy recommends the use of a "quid pro quo" approach among couples, meaning:
Reciprocal reinforcement (give a little, get a little)
Operant Interpersonal Therapy is not based on Family Systems Therapy. Instead, it's based on:
Operant conditioning
The setting of short-term goals is done during which stage of crisis intervention?
The goals of brief psychotherapy include:
a) Restore the client to his previous level of functioning; b) Address the client's most severe symptoms; c) Gain insight into the origins of the problems
A solution-focused therapist would most likely ask what type of a question?
A miracle question (to help clients shift from focusing on their problems to focusing on potential solutions)
What is a "miracle question"?
A question asked in Solution-Focused Therapy that asks the patient to visualize the absence of the problem and the resultant effect.
The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory would not be a good predictor of:
Job Success - Interest tests have moderate to good validity for predicting factors relating to interest, such as job choice, job motivation, etc. However they are not useful for predicting job performance or job success
What is content-based keying?
When items on an exam are chosen by experts in a particular field
Define Acculturation:
The conditioning of one cultural group or individual to the traits, values, and social patterns of another cultural group
Define Active Empathy:
Refers to when therapists actively communicate appreciation about all aspects of clients' lives
Define Adlerian/Individual psychology:
Based on the belief that all human behavior has a purpose and is goal-oriented; Indicates emotional difficulties result from feelings of inferiority and a lack of a sense of community
Goal of Adlerian/Individual psychology:
Reduce feelings of inferiority and increase social participation by helping a client replace a "mistaken style of life" by identifying, exploring the determinants of their life styles, and changing mistaken goals and beliefs
Define Alloplastic
Refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment
Define Anticipatory Anxiety
Anxiety caused by the expectation of anxiety in a particular situation
Define Autoplastic
Refers to changing or adapting to the environment by altering one's own behavior or responses; "self change"
Define Behavioral Family Therapy
It is guided by the principles of reinforcement, behavior shaping, consistency, and contracts for immediate goals and an action plan
Define Behavioral Rehearsal
In-session practice of a desired behavior. Used as a part of a number of therapisted, including assetiveness training, stress inoculation, and Beck's CT
Describe Berry's Acculturation Model:
Berry's 2-dimensional model proposes four possible outcomes of the acculturation process: integration, assimilation, separation, or marginalization
According to Minuchin, the founder of structural family therapy, when does family dysfunction result in disengaged families?
When boundaries are too rigid. Conversely, families are enmenshed when boundaries are permeable.
Define Calibration:
In families, the rule that governs the limits of behavior (associated w/the concept of homeostasis)
What does Choice Theory state?
All individuals are motivated by five factors: survival or self-preservation, belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independence, fun or enjoyment. It underlies reality therapy.
Describe Closed Family System
Family system in which honest self-expression is viewed as deviant and differences are treated as dangerous
Define Cognitive Triad
Beck's notion that depression is based on negative beliefs about self, future, and the world
What is "Communication/Interaction Family Therapy"?
Focuses on communication processes. Differentiates between symmetrical communication, complementary communication, and double-bind communication
Define Symmetrical Communication:
Between equals with possibility of escalating into a game of one-upsmanship
Define Complementary Communication:
Between unequally positioned individual with emphasis on differences
The tendency of counselors to interpret everyone's reality through their own cultural assumptions and stereotypes.
The assumption that Western concepts of normality and abnormality can be considered universal and equally applicable across all cultures
The tendency to attribute all emotional, social, and behavioral problems to one salient characteristic or diagnosis instead of considering other, alternative explanations.
According to Bowen, what is DIFFERENTIATION OF SELF?
The relative degree of independence of the self from others is a relationship system.
According to Minuchin, what is DISENGAGEMENT?
The psychological isolation that results when there are strong, impenetrable, or rigid boundaries between individuals or subsystems in a family.
External, objective events and conditions.
Describe DOUBLE-BIND according to Communications Theory:
The conflict created when an individual receives two conflicting messages at different levels of abstraction.
According to psychoanalysis, what is the EGO?
The part of the psychic structure which mediates with reality, and encompasses all the self-preservative capacities
Theorists and practitioners who adopted a modified version of psychoanalysis that places greater emphasis on the role of the ego in personality functioning
According to transactional analysis, what are EGO STATES?
Parent, child, and adult - All distinct and independent levels of psychological functioning that we all adopt, depending on the circumstances.
According to Bowen, what is EMOTIONAL CUTOFF?
Flight from an unresolved emotional attachment
According to Structural Family Therapy, what is enactment?
A technique involving a simulation of the transactions that make up a family structure.
According to Minuchin, when does a family have ENMESHED BOUNDARIES?
When there are diffuse psychological boundaries between subsystems and between individuals. Results in a loss of autonomy and is characterized by a high degree of resonance and reactivity between individuals.
Refers to general systems theory concept that states that no matter where one enters the system, the patterning will be the same (different causes will produce the same results)
Refers to the concept in general systems theory that a sungle cause may produce different results
Expands beyond the nuclear family w/emphasis on individual family members' intellectual and emotional differentiation
Genograms, therapeutic triangle, multigenerational transmission process, undifferentiated family ego mass, and differentiation of self
What is the emphasis of EXISTENTIAL THERAPY?
The present and the future, with focus on free will, responsibility for choices and the search for meaning and purpose through the human condition of suffering, love and work
A researcher who anayzed studies of therapy outcome.
How are FEEDBACK LOOPS associated with family therapy theory?
A system receives info through a feedback loop. A negative feedback loop helps maintain the system's equilibrium, reduces deviation and sustains its status quo, while a positive feedback loop amplifies deviation or change and thereby disrupts the system with either exponential growth or decline.
When does a FIXATION occur?
When an individual becomes stuck in a stage of development that has been attained successfully, and returns to that stage in response to life problems that become too difficult to cope with in a current stage of development
A system is characterized by the interactions of its components and knowing one part of a system can infer info about another part.
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"; Humanistic, here-and-now approach; Views neurosis as a "growth disorder" indicating "boundary disturbances" and abandonment of the self for the self image.
What is the goal of GESTALT THERAPY?
To engender full awareness of self, environment, and the self-environement interaction. Techniques include "I" Statements, dream analysis, and the empty chair technique.
A normal, nonpathological response of mistrust and suspiciousness by ethnic minorities to oppression and racism, which may result in nondisclosure therapy
An attempt to explain and predict health behaviors by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals.
Contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion-emersion, and autonomy.
The assumption that everyone is heterosexual and that heterosexuality is superior to homosexuality and bisexuality.
Relied on nonverbal cues, cultural understanding and inference, tends to beexhibited in members of many culturally diverse groups
Primarily direct, verbal messages (mostly exhibited by Anglos in America)
HOFSTEDE identified 5 Cultural Dimensions. What are they?
Power distance index (PDI), Individualism (IDV), Masculinity (MAS), Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), and Long-Term Orientation (LTO)
Howard et al proposed a 3 stage model of psychotherapy. What are the stages?
1) Remoralization, 2) Remediation, and 3) Rehabilitation
What type of therapy is sometimes referred to as "The Third Force"?
Humanistic Psychology
What does HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY emphasize?
An individual's inherent capacity for growth, creativity, and self-actualization. The focus is on the person's feeling state.
What type of "complex" did ADLER talk about in his theory?
Inferiority complex
A constellation of feelings originating in childhood that the person wishes to overcome, and by doing so, develops particular character formations.
Views mental disorders as illnesses and focuses on symptom reduction in addition to improving interpersonal relationships.
What is the difference between INTROJECTION in object relations and gestalt theories?
OR: A form of identification that takes in aspects of other people, which subsequently become a part of the self-image.
Gestalt: Involves absorbing the values or behaviors of others without really understanding or assimilating those values
According to stuctural family therapy, what is JOINING?
The therapeutic technique of adopting a family's typical behaviors and pattern of communication
Explain Jungian (analytic) Psychotherapy:
Personality development continues throughout the lifespan and behavior is determined by both the personal unconscious containing repressed material, and the collective unconscious, consisting of archetypes, or universally shared predispositions toward feeling, thinking, and perceiving.
What does Frankl's LOGOTHERAPY state?
The primary motivational force in human beings is the search for a meaning in life. There are 3 cornerstones: freedom of will, will to meaning, and the meaning of life.
Describe MAHLER's Object Relations:
Emphasized the separation, or individuation process which characterized the remainder of psychological development.
What does MAHLER consider the 4-phases of individuation?
Differentiation, Practicing, Rapprochement, and Libidinal Object Constancy
A situation where a member of a minority group does not identify strongly with either the minority or the mainstream culture
According to METACOMMUNICATION, every messages has two levels. What are they?
Report (nonverbal) and Command (verbal)
MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY is an expansion of Strategic Therapy. What does it question?
Utilizing hypothesizing (about the function of the symptom), neutrality, circularity, the use of circular questions and paradoxical techniques to address overly rigid or fixed patterns of action/reaction
What does MIMESIS mean and who uses it?
Literally means imitation. Used by structural family therapists.
A technique used by solution-focused therapists, which invites the client to imagine what would be like if his problem was suddenly gone.
A solution-focused, family-based intervention system used to assess and intervene w/substance-abusing or high risk problem behaviors
Views individuals as being nested within a complex network of interconnected systems that encompass individual, family, and extrafamilial factors
It is a goal-oriented, intensive family- and community-based treatment that addresses the multiple determinants and factors in an individual's social network that are contributing to his behavior.
Sort of. It refers to efforts to recalibrate a system that is in trouble and to restore the previous state of equilibrium; maintains the status quo or homeostatic balance of a family
George Kelly combines cognitive, behavioral, and humanistic concepts. Personal construct theray emphasizes the effect of the individual's perspective on his experience of the world
Feedback that forces a family into new ways of behaving by making old ways of behaving tenable. Often used to counteract negative feedback.
A behavioral technique that asks clients to experience and exaggerate their anticipated anxiety in an attempt to assist them in developing changes in their attitudes and reactions to the feared condition or situation.
Cognitive distortions that occur when a person deals with others as if they were signifcant persons from his early life. According to Sullivan, they are the primary cause of maladaptive behavior.
Focuses on the client's thoughts, feelings and natural ability for growth and self-actualization
Matching themost effective treatments to a particular client needs
From psychoanalysis, a type of thinking typical of dreams, small children, and slips of the tongue, with little or no rationality.
A defense mechanism in which one or more unwanted parts of the self are falsely attributed to another, which are then unconsciously accepted, or identified with, by the recipient.
An individual's perceptions and appraisals of events and conditions
5 stages: Conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness.
A variation of CBT based on the premise that changing irrational thinking to more rational thoughts will lead to behavior changes and alleviation or improvement of Sx.
Self-evaluation is a cornerstone of this therapy and the primary goal is to help clients identify their wants and needs and responsible and effective ways to satisfy them - developing a success identity.
What does REALITY THERAPY focus on?
Conscious processes, current behaviors and beliefs, an individual's ability to judge what is right and wrong, realistic planning for fulfilling needs and examining the attainability as well as the degree of commitment in attaining wants and needs.
Structural and strategic family therapists.
Therapists relabel or redefine a family's description of a behavior to make it more amenable to therapeutic intervention.
Associated w/structural family therapy; defining the symptom in interpersonal terms rather than the individual ones usually presented by the family.
A solution-focused technique, it invites each family member to rate a situation to see how the problem is perceived by others
According to transactional analysis, what are SCRIPTS?
A life plan that is developed early in life and includes one's characteristic maner of giving and receiving "strokes"
HEREK is associated with which concepts?
Sexual prejudice and sexual stigma
SMITH, GLASS, and MILLER used meta-analysis to determine what?
The outcome of psychotherapy clients. The found that psychotherapy clients were better off than 80% of the untreated individuals who needed therapy.
Individuals in positions of lower power/status are better at reading/perceiving members of higher status groups that vice versa.
Brief therapy which focuses on solutions to clients' problems rather than focusing on the problems or their causes. Includes miracle questions, scaling questions, and exception questions.
Focuses on bodily experiences and explores how these experiences are formed through the use of breathing, movement, sensory awareness, body metaphors, and one's spatial sense and boundaries.
Brief therapy developed by HALEY; focuses on transactional patterns, triangular intergenerational relationships, the function and context of symptoms and symptom reduction using strategies such as directives, paradoxical techniques, and homework assignments.
A CBT technique designed to improve a client's coping skills through education, behavioral rehearsal, and imaginal and in-vivo exposure
Define STROKES according to Transactional Analysis
Recognition from others, which can be either positive or negative
Posits families are structured in "subsystems" with "boundaries" and in order to change behavior patterns of family members needs to be changed.
Joining, mapping, enactment, boundary making, reframing and restructuring the family structure
A skills-training therapy, developed explicitly for enhancement purposes, involving: modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer training
According to ADLER, what is STYLE OF LIFE referring to?
An individual's pattern of behavior as manifested by his or her goals, attitudes toward others, manner of coping, etc. A "mistaken style of life" is one characterized by a lack of social interest.
Describe the SUPEREGO
According to psychoanalytic theory, the psychic structure that contains parental and societal standards of right and wrong (i.e., one's conscience)
There is equality between the partners. However, this can result in competition and conflict.
There is inequality between the partners, with one partner taking a dominant role and the other a subordinate role.
A technique designed to interrupt the seemingly automatic chain of cognitions that are cues to acting impulsively or impulsively or lead to unwanted behavior (e.g. self-applying an aversive technique)
An interactional approach that focuses on gaining the greatest possible benefit from the group environment. The therapist's ultimate objective is to provide the client with a level of awareness which enables him to make new decisions regarding future behavior and the future course of life
Includes the spiritual aspects of human experience. The transpersonal therapist uses an eclectic approach. There is an emphasis on the counselor's own presence, openness, and authenticity as central to the therapeutic process
What did Freud believe TRANSFERENCE NEUROSIS was?
When the transference reaction became so intense in a true analysis
Suggests the process of change involves the following stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination
Integrates cognitive and behavioral interventions w/interpersonal trust enhancement and empowerment focused traditional child abuses therapies for individuals ages 3-18 and their primary careproviders.
Both BOWEN and MINUCHIN discuss TRIANGULATION, which is:
A form of rigid triad involving usually two parents and a child. In triangulation, the two parents avoid conflict by involving the child, thereby stabilizing their own relationship.
TROIDEN developed a model of gay/lesbian identity development. Describe the model:
4-stages: Sensitization (an initial sense of difference); identity confusion; identity assumption; and indentity commitment.
Occurs when egos of individual family members share a common ego boundary. Ego fusion is most intense in less mature (less differentiated) families.
Punishment is discouraged in reality therapy b/c:
It reinforces the failure identity. The goal of reality therapy is to help a client accept personal responsibility so that he sheds the "failure identity" and adopts a "success identity."
Finding/employing any strategy that was necessary to get the client(s) to give up the symptom, often utilizing PARADOXICAL DIRECTIVE (act ain an instuction to engage in the symptomatic behavior)
Is the relationship between number of psychotherapy sessions and outcome of treatment positively or negatively accelerated?
The relationship is not consistent. However, where a relationship has been found, most of the positive effects of duration occur during the earlier sessions. After that point, positive impact seems to level off. So, this is an example of a negatively accelerated curve
The goal of GESTALT THERAPY is to increase the client's here-and-now awareness so that all aspects of self can be integrated into a coherent gestalt, or whole. How are dreams viewed?
As representing parts of the self that the client is not aware of or cannot accept. The therapist who have the client act out parts of the dream in order to increase the client's awareness of disowned parts of self.
The inquiry stage of the Rorschach administration is used to:
Clarify responses and collect additional information, which will be useful for scoring.
One of the major manipulations employed in STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY (MINUCHIN) is to:
Aim at unbalancing enmeshed alliances. In treating an enmeshed family, a structural family therapist would aim to upset the family's balance and restructure it, offering all members more autonomy.
The theorist who viewed unhealthy behavior as a response to basic anxiety in which the person, in relating to others, over-relies on movement toward others, movement away from others, or movement against other is:
Horney. She proposed that certain parental behaviors (e.g. indifference, overprotection, rejection) cause a child to experience basic anxiety, or a feeling of helplessness and isolation in a hostile world. To defend against this anxiety, the child adopts certain modes of relation to others. The healthy individual integrates all three "movements"
Increase the family's level of self differentiation, or ability to separate intellectual from emotional functioning. He preferred to work with one or two most differentiated family members, on the assumption that their improvements in therapy would spread to other family members.
According to GESTALT THERAPY, "INTROJECTION" involves:
Accepting the values and beliefs of others w/out really understanding them. Introjection is a boundary disturbance that involves absorbing information (including values, beliefs, etc.) w/out actually understanding or assimilating it.
INTROJECTION in Gestalt Therapy can be healthy and unhealthy. What's the difference?
It becomes unhealthy when it is used without awareness in a manner that opposes the goal of functioning as a coherent whole.