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99 Cards in this Set

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Name themajor land-based and water-based biomes and give prime biotic and abioticcharacteristics of each.

LAND 12: Desert Biome, Temperate Grassland Biome, Savanna Biome, Tropical Rainforest Biome, Tropical Dry Forest Biome, Temperate Rainforest Biome, Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome, Conifer Forest Biome, Tundra Biome, Taiga Biome, Chaparral Biome, Swamps, Marshes, Bogs Biome


mainly green plants; driven by the sun / photosynthesis

Biotic structure

The way organisms fit together

Describe the process ofphotosynthesis.
Light energy + CO2 +H2O -> glucose + O2
Understand the second principle of ecosystem sustainability.


all organisms (plants, animals, and microbes) are referred to as biota


is the molecule that captures light energy in plants

Detritus (feeders)

fecal waste of animals or dead animals

(consumers call detritus feeders: earthworms and millipedes, etc.)


A region that contains many of the species and characteristics of 2 adjacent systems where 2 biomes blend together.

Biotic structure

refers to the parts and how they fit together

2 sides of every ecosystem: 1. organisms 2. environmental factors.

all organisms = biota

Primary consumers

animals that feed directly on the producers (Herbivores)

Secondary consumers

animals that feed on primary consumers

intrinsic value

value for its own sake does not have to be useful to possess value

5 areas of value

1. Agriculture, Forestry, Aquaculture, and Animal Husbandry

2. For Medicine

3. Recreation, Aesthetic, and Scientific Value

4. Commercial Value

5. Intrinsic Value

Define biodiversity and estimate the diversity of species on Earth.

The variety and variability of life on Earth. variability within species, between species, and between ecosystems.

2,440,000 known/catalogued species

11MIL predicted number

Terrestrial: 8.75 MIL

Ocean: 2.23 MIL

loss of bio-­diversity: 6 causes


Habitat alteration

Invasive species


Population growth


Climate change

Analyze the ways in which physical alteration of habitat affect biodiversity.




Explain how the human population explosion impacts biodiversity.

increasing pop puts pressure on biodiversity

-timber production



Biological wealth

the life-sustaining combination of commercial, scientific, and aesthetic values imparted to a region by its biota.


a plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding.

Gene bank

a type of biorepository which preserve genetic material.

Simplification of habitat

*Human use simplifies habitats

-fuelwood gathering

-stream channelization

-trails for recreation

Fragmentation of habitat

-minimum area required to support a critical number of individuals

-edge effect: changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two habitats.

-fragments do not preserve biodiversity

Conversion of habitat

habitat alteration

forests > farms

forests > housing

Endangered Species Act: Provides 3 things

Endangered Species Act of 1973 (reauth in 1988)

1. Substantial fines for any killing, trapping, uprooting (plants) or commerce

2. USFWS to draft recovery plans

3. Habitats must be mapped and a program designed for preservation and management

-1400 species listed (said 900)

-700 recovery plans exist (said 500)

Endangered species

one that has been reduced to the point where it is inimminent danger of becoming extinct without protection

Exotic species

is one introduced that is from somewhere else

-aka alien species

-usually has no niche to fill and dies out

-occasionally disrupts ecosystems and wipes out native species

Lacey Act

— enacted in 1900, forbids interstate commerce in illegally killed wildlife


— the enterprise involved in promoting tourism of unusual or interestingecological sites

* Non-consumptive use of wildlife

*travel industry important for many countries

Rwanda- gorillas, $ maker, 3% of preserves land

Kenya-Wildlife 2nd largest source of income

Costa Rica- rainforest, 2nd to coffee in income

Dominica- plans to develop economy on ecotour

Keystone species

— a species whose role is absolutely vital for the survival of manyother organisms in an ecosystem

-May be a pollinator

-elephants in africa: grazing modifies habitat in favor of many other species

The structure of ecosystems


biosperes> conifer forests> douglas fir/grand fir/

plants/animals/microbes > firs/understory>

Oregon grape

a grouping of various species of plants, animals, and microbes interactingwith each other and their environment

Each ecosystem is characterized by a distinctive plant community


— grouping of particular plants


refers to a number of closely related ecosystems

Desert Biome

>15 in precip/year


amount of vegetation varies widely

hot and cold deserts

Temperate Grassland biome

15-25 in/year

dominated by grass

distinct hot and cold seasons

aka steppe, prarie

water-based biomes (9)

Freshwater swamps, marshes and bogs. Lakes. Rivers and Streams. Estuaries. Inter-tidal zones. Coastal Ocean. Open Ocean. Mangrove. Coral Reefs.

Inter-tidal zones

area between low and high tide

Coastal Ocean

along the continental divide

Savanna Biome

grassland w/out 4 seasons\

dominated by grasses, some shrubs/trees

warm/hot climate-no cold season

drier tropical regions

distinct rainy and dry seasons

Tropical Rainforest Biome

yearly uniform warm temperatures

year-round rain (no dry season)

tropical areas of the world

huge biodiversity

Tropical Dry Forest Biome

yearly uniform warm temperatures

distinct dry season (trees lose leaves)

tropical areas of the world

huge biodiversity

Temperate Rain Forest Biome

temperate climate (not hot)

year round rain (no real dry season)

often dominated by conifer trees

high timber production

Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome

Warm summers, cool winters

broadleaf trees that lose their leaves in winter

>35 in precip/year

oaks, beeches, maples, etc

Conifer Forest Biome

cool simmers cold winters

conifer trees dominate

>22" precip/year

pines, furs, spruces, larch

Tundra Biome

dry as desert

cool climates

high latitudes alpine

low biomass

Taiga Biome

aka boreal forest

dom. by evergreen trees

stunted trees, bogs, and lakes

ling cold winters, short cool summers

Siberia, Finland, Canada

Chaparral Biome

Mediterranean climate

16-30 in precip/year

evergreen shrubs, densely thicketed

frequent fires

Swamps, marshes, Bogs Biome

land-based, but heavily h2o influenced,

standing water for at least 3 months

some aquatic plants

biologically diverse


Non-living chemical and physical factors of the environment: temperature, moisture, wind, etc.


2 types: primary and secondary

Primary feed directly on producers

Secondary feed on primaries


— fungi and bacteria

-Detritus (di TRI tus) — fecal wastes of animal and dead animals

Consumers called detritus feeders

i.e. earthworms, millipedes etc

Have primary detritus feeders secondary detritus feeders

instrumental value

a species or individual organism has instrumental value if itsexistence or use benefits some other entity (monetary value)


— beneficiaries are humans

5 areas of value: 1. Agriculture, Forestry, Aquaculture, and Animal Husbandry

* Native plant for cultivation...Cultivar for variety

*Potential 10k legumes, 50 widely cultivated

soybeans, dry beans, peas, lentils, peanuts

alfalfa, clover, lupines etc.

5 areas of value: 2. For Medicine

*periwinkle of madagascar: 10of800 in medicine

-childhood leukemia -hodgkins disease

-100 MIL annual industry, no $ to madagascar

*pacific yew-produces taxol, a compound used in cancer treatment

*24% of pharmaceuticals today are plant derived

5 areas of value: 3. Recreation, Aesthetic, and Scientific Value

-sport fishing





-movies (gorillas in the mist)

-very important source of support for maintaining wild species

5 areas of value: 4. Commercial Value

INDIRECT: rec value to support commercial value

-sporting good stores-tourist travel-Ecotourism

DIRECT: commercial logging-don't overcut!

-commercial fishing

5 areas of value: 5. Intrinsic Value

* Basic right to exist

* Large vs. small animals?

* future of mankind?

Predicting Biodiversity: 3 factors in order

1. heat and humidity

2. size of country

3. number of biomes


The variety and variability of life on Earth.

The variability within species, between species, and between ecosystems.

BioD in the world: 5 big countries

70% in 17 countries

Near equator, tropical rain forest, large

Brazil, Indonesia, New Guinea, Zaire (Congo),


Next 5

USA, Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Mexico

Ranking states


1-ID, 2-MT, 3-WY

1-CA, 2-TX, 3-AK

1-OK, 2-NB, 3-ND

Ranking Countries

1-Cuba, 2-Dom Repub, 3-Haiti

1-Uganda, 2-Chad, 3-Niger

BioD in the USA

Mammals-466, 21 th/en 5% en

Birds-1095, 43 en 5% en

Amphibians- 222, 22 en, 10% en

Reptiles- 368, 25 en, 7% en

Fish- 2,640, 164 en, 7% en

Plants- 20,080 , 2,476 , 10% en

Idaho endangered Species

caribou, Grizzly Bear, Crane, 3 types of salmon, Peregrine Falcon, 3 types of snails

USA endangered

9K species at risk

500 extinct

1,400 on ESA

Bad Signs (endangered) USA

commercial fish catch down 42% since '82

waterfowl pops down 30% since '69

song bird and frog numbers declining

Bad Signs (endangered) WORLD

-Most extensions on small islands

Concern in Tropics

-if deforestation is 1.8% = lose 40K species a year

-potential loss of 320K species 2008-2016

-about 2MIL species in tropics

-huge biodiversity

biodiversity hot spots, and examples

regions with high levels of endemic species (found nowhere else) that are under serious threat from humans.

-Black Rhino down 96% '70-'99

-48% of wild cats in trouble

-50% of bears in trouble


Cause or is a form of habitat destruction or alteration

-forest die back

-chesapeake bay

- DDT use

Overuse / overexploitation

over: fishing, logging, and whaling

furniture from tropical hardwoods

Ivory, Rhino horns, gallbladders and livers of bears, etc.

Exotic pets

Climate change

-coral reefs (may be gone in 40 yrs)

-ocean acidification

-weather (temperatures etc.)

Conversion in Idaho

12K acres/year

farmland to urban

forests and pastures to suburban

Fragmentation in Idaho

A building on 5-60 acres of land

subdivisions in rural areas

Simplification in Idaho

forestry-cutting trees


Change in PNW

78K+ acts converted annually

250K acres fragmented annually

change in the USA

900K+ acres annually = 1.5 rhode island

Latah county = 698K acres

Rhode Island = 670K acres

Change in the world

40MIL acres/year (size of Georgia)

25+MIL to farms

9MIL to pastures

6MIL to human use

Internet's efforts to protect BioD

Trade in endangered species- CITES

Convention on Biological Diversity


Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

-focus on trade of wild plants and animals

-int'l agreement signed by 118 countries

-banned ivory trade to stop decline of elephant

Saving wild species in USA

-game animals gtg

turkey success. almost extinct 4.5MIL in 49 states

-hunting fees help

-good wildlife mngmt

-some non-game programs

Problems: road kills>hunter kills, urban invasion (opossums, raccoons, skunks, deer), lack of predators; deer but no wolves

convention on biological diversity

-1/2 agreements from '92 Earth summit in Rio

-signed by 158 nations

-USA no sign bc industry objections

-funds move from HDCs to LDCs to protect biodiversity

-genetic resource access rests with host countrys

-have to share tech developed from genetic resources

Problems with ESA

-protection once almost gone

-spotted owl threatened 6-8k indv.

-not enough $ for enforcement

-political problems with some species (snail darter-dam, spotted owl-logging, salmon-dams/commerce in PNW

ESA is the formal recognition of the importance of preserving wild speciesregardless of economic importance (intrinsic value)

ESA today

-July 2012, 1,394 species listed

-600 animal -794 plant

-316 threatened: -166 animal, -150 plant

ecosystems under pressure: forest and woodland

The decline of biodiversity is linked to the welfare of all the Earth’s ecosystems

1. ForestsandWoodlands – approximately 35% of the area in woodland worldwide is now devoid of trees

ecosystems under pressure:forest cover

-down 50% last 8k years

-40MIL HA/decade

-29MIL actual, 11MIL plantations

-Deforestation greatest in Africa, Caribbean

Negative impacts of losing forest

-reduced productivity: biomass

-reduc nutrients

-reduce BioD

-+ soil erosion

- reduced soil moisture)both ppt and retention)

-reduced efficiency of hydrological cycle


1.3% of world land area

BUT 11% plants, 10% mammals, 16% insects


-Reduce tree cover = reduced rainfall

Why are we losing forests?

-expansion of agriculture

-wood harvesting

-road building

Wetlands drying up

-6% of earth

-high disproportionate BioD

-50% loss in US since 1900


huge loss worldwide. EX Barbados

Public lands in USA

-40% land publicly owned

-4.5K protected areas worldwide

Wilderness act of 1964

-630 locations in US

- 102 MIL acres

Federal Management

BLM-170MIL acres





Diversity if National Forests

- 190+ MIL acres

-land in USA, Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico

Caribbean National Forests in Puerto Rico

- El Yunque Forest

-Nation's only tropical forest

- > 100k acres

- more plant diversity than entire forest system combined


-33MIL acres federally owned

-62.6% of state

-Only AK, UT, and NV have higher % of land federally owned