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30 Cards in this Set

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Which organisms would you expect to find in areas of primary succession?

A. trees


B. shrubs


C. lichens


D. grasses


E. herbs

A. trees


B. shrubs


C. lichens


D. grasses


E. herbs

The more genetically diverse a population is, the more likely ___________.

A. favourable traits will be selected for evolution


B. the population will survive


C. the population will be lost to global climate change


D. both A and B


E. all of the above

A. favourable traits will be selected for evolution


B. the population will survive


C. the population will be lost to global climate change


D. both A and B


E. all of the above

The arrival of Western settlers caused the destruction and disappearance of much of the original Acadian forest. By doing so, the settlers affected

A. habitats for many species


B. the amount of sediment flowing into lakes and rivers


C. the regulation of climate


D. all of the above


E. none of the above

A. habitats for many species


B. the amount of sediment flowing into lakes and rivers


C. the regulation of climate


D. all of the above


E. none of the above

Which type of species can benefit from activities that result in habitat fragmentation?

A. keystone species


B. core species


C. threatened species


D. edge species


E. dominant species

A. keystone species


B. core species


C. threatened species


D. edge species


E. dominant species

Controversy exists in the United States concerning the containment of a fish species imported from China known as the Asian Carp. There are concerns that this species may successfully populate areas they are not native to (e.g. Great Lakes) and alter the existing community. In this situation, what type of species is the Asian Carp?

A. an exterminator species


B. an endemic species


C. a keystone species


D. an invasive species


E. an extinct species

A. an exterminator species


B. an endemic species


C. a keystone species


D. an invasive species


E. an extinct species

Extinction is ________.

A. not caused by human disturbance


B. something that occurs only rarely


C. a natural process


D. proceeding more slowly now than at any other time


E. the loss of communities from the planet

A. not caused by human disturbance


B. something that occurs only rarely


C. a natural process


D. proceeding more slowly now than at any other time


E. the loss of communities from the planet

Natural selection acts on ________ while ________ evolve.

A. communities; populations


B. species; individuals


C. individuals; populations


D. populations; individuals


E. communities; individuals

A. communities; populations


B. species; individuals


C. individuals; populations


D. populations; individuals


E. communities; individuals

Which of the following groups feed on all of the other groups?

A. producers


B. primary consumers


C. secondary consumers


D. decomposers


E. tertiary consumers

A. producers


B. primary consumers


C. secondary consumers


D. decomposers


E. tertiary consumers

Biologists studying a population of birds observe that individual birds with average-sized wings survive severe storms better than those individual birds with either longer wings or shorter wings. Over time, the population is made up of more birds with average-sized wings. What term would apply to this situation?

A. the bottleneck effect


B. the founder effect


C. directional selection


D. stabilizing selection


E. disruptive selection

A. the bottleneck effect


B. the founder effect


C. directional selection


D. stabilizing selection


E. disruptive selection

A road that cuts through a forest is an example of __________.

A. a biological corridor


B. transition destruction


C. habitat fragmentation


D. edge destruction


E. habitat enhancement

A. a biological corridor


B. transition destruction


C. habitat fragmentation


D. edge destruction


E. habitat enhancement

_______ is the genetic variation among individuals of a single population or within the species as a whole.

A. Natural selection


B. Coevolution


C. Species diversity


D. Genetic diversity


E. Extirpation

A. Natural selection


B. Coevolution


C. Species diversity


D. Genetic diversity


E. Extirpation

When a storm hits a coastal wetland, the wetland ecosystem acts as a protective buffer between the storm-damaged coastline and the inland habitats. This buffer area provided by the wetland is considered a(n) _________.

A. ecosystem service


B. nutrient cycle


C. unlimited factor


D. limiting factor


E. waste of usable land

A. ecosystem service


B. nutrient cycle


C. unlimited factor


D. limiting factor


E. waste of usable land

What term describes the feeding relationships among the species in a community?

A. trophic structure


B. species biodiversity


C. keystone species


D. secondary succession


E. ecological niche

A. trophic structure


B. species biodiversity


C. keystone species


D. secondary succession


E. ecological niche

A community can be greatly affected if a ___________ is lost.

A. common species


B. keystone species


C. complex species


D. simple species


E. primary species

A. common species


B. keystone species


C. complex species


D. simple species


E. primary species

The concept of the trophic pyramid reflects ________________.

A. the fact that each transfer of energy as you move up the food web results in a loss of about 90%


B. the fact that each transfer of energy as you move up the food web results in a loss of about 10%


C. the fact that biomass increases as you move up the food web


D. the number of decomposers found in a system


E. none of the above

A. the fact that each transfer of energy as you move up the food web results in a loss of about 90%


B. the fact that each transfer of energy as you move up the food web results in a loss of about 10%


C. the fact that biomass increases as you move up the food web


D. the number of decomposers found in a system


E. none of the above

The difference between a food chain and a food web is that ________________.

A. producers are the first species in a food web, while secondary consumers begin a food chain


B. a food web only includes a single line of species consuming other organisms among trophic levels


C. a food chain always shows how much energy is passed from one organism to the next


D. a food web shows interactions among all the species of a community, instead of just a single line of energy transfer between trophic levels


E. there is no difference

A. producers are the first species in a food web, while secondary consumers begin a food chain


B. a food web only includes a single line of species consuming other organisms among trophic levels


C. a food chain always shows how much energy is passed from one organism to the next


D. a food web shows interactions among all the species of a community, instead of just a single line of energy transfer between trophic levels


E. there is no difference

What is the most likely location of a biodiversity hotspot?

A. island


B. ocean


C. prairie grasslands


D. tundra


E. boreal forest

A. island


B. ocean


C. prairie grasslands


D. tundra


E. boreal forest

In mutualism, one organism is ________________ and the other organism is ________________.

A. harmed; harmed


B. benefited; harmed


C. harmed; benefited


D. benefited; benefited


E. neither benefited nor harmed; neither benefited nor harmed

A. harmed; harmed


B. benefited; harmed


C. harmed; benefited


D. benefited; benefited


E. neither benefited nor harmed; neither benefited nor harmed

Owls hunt for field mice in a field at night. Foxes hunt for field mice in the same field during the day. The term that best describes the interaction between the owls and the foxes is ________________.

A. parasitism


B. predation


C. competition


D. mutualism


E. resource partitioning

A. parasitism


B. predation


C. competition


D. mutualism


E. resource partitioning

An example of secondary succession is ________________.

A. the growth of shrubs and trees in an abandoned agricultural field


B. the elimination of mangrove forests in coastal areas


C. coastal erosion due to lost wetland habitats


D. succession on a recent volcanic lava flow


E. a tropical rainforest being cleared and replanted with non-native grasses for cattle grazing

A. the growth of shrubs and trees in an abandoned agricultural field


B. the elimination of mangrove forests in coastal areas


C. coastal erosion due to lost wetland habitats


D. succession on a recent volcanic lava flow


E. a tropical rainforest being cleared and replanted with non-native grasses for cattle grazing

The majority of species that have been identified belong to which group?

A. fungi


B. bacteria


C. insects


D. vertebrates


E. plants

A. fungi


B. bacteria


C. insects


D. vertebrates


E. plants

The draining of wetlands for urban development is an example of __________.

A. overharvesting


B. habitat restoration


C. habitat destruction


D. increasing biodiversity


E. the founder effect

A. overharvesting


B. habitat restoration


C. habitat destruction


D. increasing biodiversity


E. the founder effect

What term describes the intentional breeding for certain traits or combination of traits, commonly used in agriculture?

A. the founder effect


B. artificial selection


C. genetic drift


D. natural selection


E. the bottleneck effect

A. the founder effect


B. artificial selection


C. genetic drift


D. natural selection


E. the bottleneck effect

What term describes the process by which communities change over time?

A. species evolution


B. successive diversification


C. pioneer colonization


D. ecological replacement


E. ecological succession

A. species evolution


B. successive diversification


C. pioneer colonization


D. ecological replacement


E. ecological succession

An object’s or species’ worth, based on its usefulness to humans, is its _____.

A. implicit nature


B. instrumental value


C. intrinsic value


D. biotic potential


E. net worth

A. implicit nature


B. instrumental value


C. intrinsic value


D. biotic potential


E. net worth

Several factors contribute to the endangerment of species, including all of the following except _________.

A. pollution


B. anthropogenic climate change


C. habitat destruction


D. overharvesting


E. diversification of genes

A. pollution


B. anthropogenic climate change


C. habitat destruction


D. overharvesting


E. diversification of genes

Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course and flood a low-lying valley. As a result, two groups of a small lizard species become separated and isolated from one another. Over a very long period of time (representing many generations of the two lizard populations), what is a likely outcome?

A. Both groups will probably become keystone species in their new habitats.


B. One group of lizards will probably become the dominant local species.


C. One or both groups will probably become invasive species.


D. One or both groups will probably move to another area away from the flood


E. The groups will probably become genetically different, and speciation may occur.

A. Both groups will probably become keystone species in their new habitats.


B. One group of lizards will probably become the dominant local species.


C. One or both groups will probably become invasive species.


D. One or both groups will probably move to another area away from the flood


E. The groups will probably become genetically different, and speciation may occur.

The difference between primary succession and secondary succession is

A. primary succession occurs when a species moves into an area that starts as bare rock


B. primary succession involves repopulating a previously damaged ecosystem


C. primary and secondary succession are essentially the same


D. secondary succession begins with the entrance of a pioneer species


E. secondary succession occurs when a species moves into an area that starts as bare rock

A. primary succession occurs when a species moves into an area that starts as bare rock


B. primary succession involves repopulating a previously damaged ecosystem


C. primary and secondary succession are essentially the same


D. secondary succession begins with the entrance of a pioneer species


E. secondary succession occurs when a species moves into an area that starts as bare rock

Species that move into areas at later stages of ecological succession are called ________________.

A. pioneer species


B. edge species


C. climax species


D. colonizing species


E. indicator species

A. pioneer species


B. edge species


C. climax species


D. colonizing species


E. indicator species

Species are considered ______ when they face a high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Species are considered ________ when they are in danger of becoming _______ in the near future.

A. threatened; endangered; extirpated


B. endangered; extinct; threatened


C. extirpated; threatened; endangered


D. threatened; endangered; endangered


E. endangered; threatened; endangered

A. threatened; endangered; extirpated


B. endangered; extinct; threatened


C. extirpated; threatened; endangered


D. threatened; endangered; endangered


E. endangered; threatened; endangered