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29 Cards in this Set

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Describe the old vs new atmosphere

Old: Contained He & H only


New: Volcanic eruption added CNOS


78% N,


21% O2,


<1% Ar, &


.401% CO2

Describe the Greenhouse effect

UV light from sun changes to heat once it hits earth. It then bounces back and is absorbed by greenhouse gases.

What are convection currents?

Air currents that affect the weather



How/ why does it rain?

Warm water hold moisture in the air



Describe the Coriolis effect

-Curvature of winds due to rotation of earth


-North Hemisphere: Clockwise


-Southern Hemisphere: Counterclockwise

What are monsoons?

Warm, moist air from Indian ocean blow onto India and hit the Himalayas.

Primary vs Secondary Pollutants

Primary: emitted in Hazardous form


Secondary: Hazardous after chemical reactions



How to reduce air pollution emissions?

-Replace coal with natural gas (UK)


-Move to nuclear energy


-Renewable resources: Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biomass, Fuel Cells


-Plant trees



Current Evidence of Global Warming

-Precipitation: more in high latitudes, less in the tropics


-H2O Evaporates= storms and disasters


-Longer growing seasons


-loss of alpine/polar glaciers



Larsen B. Ice shelf



A piece the size of Rhode Island broke off

Why is the earth/ground dynamic?

Solid ground always moving, splitting, changing structure

3 major layers of Earth

The crust: low density silicate rock


The mantle: High density silicate rock


The core: Liquid outer layer, solid inner layer

Tectonic movements

Earthquakes: tectonic plates moving

Volcanoes: Increase pressure, melting crust. Oceanic plate pushed under continental




Describe weathering

Rocks slowly eroding because of wind, water, glaciers etc...

Glacial Till: rocks left behind by receded glaciers


Define Energy, Work, and Power

Energy: Ability to do work


Work: Application of a force thru a distance


Power: Rate of the flow of energy

Main energy sources

Oil, gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind etc...

Fossil Fuels

Coal: most abundant in North America. Burning releases SO2, NO2, CO2, and NO3


Oil: Production expected to peak= Prices Increase


Tar sands: Sands coated with Bitumen ( soft fossil fuel)


Natural Gas: Methane (CH4)

How is most energy lost?

Through heat

Why is water important?

Dissolves nutrients


Mobilizes nutrients


Essential for industry


Agriculture

Windward vs Leeward

Effects of Mountains:


Windward sides: lots of rain, Pacific Northwest


Leeward Sides: Dry conditions

Where is fresh water found?

Most drinking water is found frozen


2.4% water on Earth is drinkable


From that 87% is frozen, 13% liquid


95% ground water

Aquifers

Underground area with smaller particles of rock where H20 Flows freely


Pressure builds up as H20 Moves

Big Dams vs. Small Dams

River

Constantly flowing, replinshed by melting ice

Lakes

Contains much more H20 than rivers


Important as water source and transport

Wetlands

Trap water, reduce erosion, large amount of groundwater

Atmosphere

10 days residence time, very little water

Reasons for water shortages?

Water must be cleaned from pathogens and chemicals. This is too slow compared to the amount used.

Water availability topics

-Water used to determine where ppl settled down


Problem in arid countries, local areas


-Can be reused


Consumption< Withdrawal. We use less than we take out=waste (letting Fosset drip)