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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Describe the old vs new atmosphere

Old: Contained He & H only

New: Volcanic eruption added CNOS

78% N,

21% O2,

<1% Ar, &

.401% CO2

Describe the Greenhouse effect

UV light from sun changes to heat once it hits earth. It then bounces back and is absorbed by greenhouse gases.

What are convection currents?

Air currents that affect the weather

How/ why does it rain?

Warm water hold moisture in the air

Describe the Coriolis effect

-Curvature of winds due to rotation of earth

-North Hemisphere: Clockwise

-Southern Hemisphere: Counterclockwise

What are monsoons?

Warm, moist air from Indian ocean blow onto India and hit the Himalayas.

Primary vs Secondary Pollutants

Primary: emitted in Hazardous form

Secondary: Hazardous after chemical reactions

How to reduce air pollution emissions?

-Replace coal with natural gas (UK)

-Move to nuclear energy

-Renewable resources: Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biomass, Fuel Cells

-Plant trees

Current Evidence of Global Warming

-Precipitation: more in high latitudes, less in the tropics

-H2O Evaporates= storms and disasters

-Longer growing seasons

-loss of alpine/polar glaciers

Larsen B. Ice shelf

A piece the size of Rhode Island broke off

Why is the earth/ground dynamic?

Solid ground always moving, splitting, changing structure

3 major layers of Earth

The crust: low density silicate rock

The mantle: High density silicate rock

The core: Liquid outer layer, solid inner layer

Tectonic movements

Earthquakes: tectonic plates moving

Volcanoes: Increase pressure, melting crust. Oceanic plate pushed under continental

Describe weathering

Rocks slowly eroding because of wind, water, glaciers etc...

Glacial Till: rocks left behind by receded glaciers

Define Energy, Work, and Power

Energy: Ability to do work

Work: Application of a force thru a distance

Power: Rate of the flow of energy

Main energy sources

Oil, gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind etc...

Fossil Fuels

Coal: most abundant in North America. Burning releases SO2, NO2, CO2, and NO3

Oil: Production expected to peak= Prices Increase

Tar sands: Sands coated with Bitumen ( soft fossil fuel)

Natural Gas: Methane (CH4)

How is most energy lost?

Through heat

Why is water important?

Dissolves nutrients

Mobilizes nutrients

Essential for industry


Windward vs Leeward

Effects of Mountains:

Windward sides: lots of rain, Pacific Northwest

Leeward Sides: Dry conditions

Where is fresh water found?

Most drinking water is found frozen

2.4% water on Earth is drinkable

From that 87% is frozen, 13% liquid

95% ground water


Underground area with smaller particles of rock where H20 Flows freely

Pressure builds up as H20 Moves

Big Dams vs. Small Dams


Constantly flowing, replinshed by melting ice


Contains much more H20 than rivers

Important as water source and transport


Trap water, reduce erosion, large amount of groundwater


10 days residence time, very little water

Reasons for water shortages?

Water must be cleaned from pathogens and chemicals. This is too slow compared to the amount used.

Water availability topics

-Water used to determine where ppl settled down

Problem in arid countries, local areas

-Can be reused

Consumption< Withdrawal. We use less than we take out=waste (letting Fosset drip)