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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Accent
The pronunciation of words
Accommodation
A theory that suggests that we adjust our speech to 'accomodate' the person we are addressing.
Acquisition
A child's version of language.
(Mummy, dada)
Acronym
A word formed from the initial letters of other words.(R.A.D.A.R)
Active Voice
The subject of a verb is the agent performing the action
(The police[subject] caught [verb]the burgular)
Adjacency Pairs
A predictable pattern found in a conversation- a question followed by an answer
(Heya- oh hi!)
Adjective
A word that can be used to describe a noun
(The QUICK brown fox)
Adverb
Usually answer a question such as how, when, where?
Usually end in -LY
Adverbial
A word/group of words working as an adverb, usually giving information about a time, place or manner.
Affix
A group of letters forming part of a word (secures the word), usually a prefix or suffix.
Alliteration
When two or more words begin with the same sound
(Curious cat)
Amelioration
Turning a negative word into a positive word.
(Agressive becomes gentle)
Anaphoric Reference
A word or expression in a text that refers back to another part of the text.
(I met up with Jenny yesterday. She looked awful!)
Antonym
A word that is opposite in meaning to another word.
(wet and dry)
Assonance
Words that have internal rhyming.
(on a proud round cloud in white high night)
Asyndetic Listing
Listing which does not involve the use of conjunctions.
Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary verbs are used with main verbs to construct the verb phrase.
Blend
A word formed by combining parts of other words.
(Smog= smoke and fog)
Borrowing
A word or expression taken from another language.
Broadening
When the meaning of a word is extended; the word retains its old meaning but takes one or more aded meanings as well.
Cataphoric Reference
A word or expression in a text refers forwards to another part of a text.
Clause
A group of words forming a unit within a sentence, usually containing a subject and a verb.
Cliche
An over used saying or meaning.
Clipping
A word formed by shortening an exisitng word.
(Telephone=phone)
Cohesion
The techniques and devices used to connect different parts of a text with another.
Coinage
The creation of a completely new word.
Collocation
Groups (usually pairs) of words that are commonly found alongside each other.
(Verb+noun=take a vacation)
Comparative
An adjective that makes a comparison.
Complex Sentence
A sentence containing a main clause and one or more clauses of lesser importance.
Compound
A word or expression formed from the combination of other words.
(Black birds, head waiter)
Compound Sentence
Two or more simple sentences joined together by co-ordinating conjunctions.
(and, so, but)
Conjunction
A word that joins together the different parts of a sentence.
(And, or, so)
Connotation
The associations that a word has.
Contraction
When words are combined to form a single, shortened word.
(We have= we've)
Convergence
When the speech styles of two or more people move closely to each other.
Creole
A language that has developed and become the first language of new generation speakers.
Declarative Sentence
A sentence that makes a statement.
Deixis
Diectic expressions cannot be understood unless the context of the utterance is known.
(Here, there)
Denotation
The straightforward, objective meaning of a word- its dictionary meaning.
Descriptivism
An approach to the study of language that describes how language is used but does not judge language use as correct or incorrect.
Determiner
A word used before a noun to indicate quantity, indentity or significance.
(A, the, some)
Dialect
A variety of language with distinctive features of vocabulary, grammar and accent.
Divergence
When the speech styles of two or more move away from each other.
Ellipsis
The omission of one or more grammatical elements of a sentence.
End-Focus
Placing emphasis upon the closing part of a sentence.
Estuary English
An accent that originated in London and the south-east and that has spread outwards to other parts of the country.
Euphemism
A mild or indirect expression used to instead of one that is considered in some way offensive, painful or unpleasant.
Exclamatory Reference
A sentence that ends with an exclamation mark.
Field-Specific Lexis
Vocabulary associated with a particular topic or field
Filled Pause
A hesitation
(Um, er)
Filler
A word or expression of little meaning commonly inserted into speech.
(You know, like)
Form
A meaningful unit of language, such as an affix, a word, a phrase, or a sentence.
Genre
A type or form- a novel or short story.
Graphology
The visual aspects of a text.
Head Word
The main word in a phrase.
Hyponym
A general word linked in meaning to more specific words- desk etc.
Idiolect
The form of language used by, and unique to a single individual.
Idiom
An expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the meanings of the individual words that makes up the expression.
Imperative Sentence
A sentence that is a question.
Infinitive
A form of a verb that does not specify person or number.
Inflection
A letter or group of letters at the end of a word serving a grammatical function.
Interrogative Sentence
A sentence that is a question.
Intertextuality
When a text makes a reference to, or incorporates elements of another text.
Intransitive Verbs
Words which do not require an object.
Jargon
The specialist vocabulary associated with a particular occupation or activity.
Lexical Field
A group of words with associated meanings and uses.
Lexis
Another term of vocabulary.
Loan Word
A word that has been taken from antoher language.
Metaphor
A comparison that describes a person, object or situation as it were actually something else.
Modal Auxiliary
Auxiliary verbs which are only ever used in conjunction within main verbs.
Modifier
A word that gives more information about a head word.
Monosyllabic Words
Words of one syllable.
Morpheme
The smallest unit of language that expresses meaning or serves a grammatical function; always a letter or group of letters.
Morphology
The study of the structure of words.
Narrowing
When the meaning of a word narrows so that it becomes more limited and specific.
Non-fluency Features
Features that interrupt the flow of a person's speech- hesitations and repitition.
Noun
A word that indicates the name given to a person, place, object, feeling etc.
Onomatopoeia
When the sound of a word echoes it's meaning.
(buzz, splash)
Oxymoron
When two words that are opposite are combined.
(Living death, plastic flowers)
Parallelism
Occurs when phrases or sentences have a similar pattern or structure.
Passive Voice
When the subject of a verb is the element affected by the action.
Prejoration
A shift in the meaning of a word so that it's meaning becomes less positive.
Phoneme
The smallest unit of sound in a language.
Phonetics
The study of the sounds of speech.
Phonology
The study of the patterns and systems of sounds in particular languages.
Phrase
A word or group of words that functions as a unit in a sentence.
Pidgin
A language that combines two or more other languages, enabling the members of different speech communities to communicate.
Polysyllabic
Words with three or more syllables.
Pragmatics
The study of the part that language plays in social situations and social relationships.
Prefix
A group of letters commonly found at the beginning of words.
(Re, Un)
Preposition
A word that relates one word to another.
(In, at, under)
Prescriptivism
An approach to the study of language that favours rules, identifying correct and incorrect language uses.
Pronoun
A word that takes the place of a noun.
Prosody
Non-verbal aspects of speech such as volume, intonation and pitch.
Recieved Pronunciation
The accent associated with upper-class speakers of English.
Register
A form of language appropriate to a particular situation.
Repair
In conversation, a repair resolves a problem that has arisen.
(The speaker may correct themselves if something has been said in error.)
Semantics
The study of word meanings.
Simile
A comparison.
(Includes the words: like, as)
Simple Sentence
A sentence that contains only one clause.
Sociolect
A variety of language used by a particular social group.
Standard English
The vocabulary and grammar associated with educated users of the language.
Subordinate Clause
A clause within a sentence that is less importnat than the main clause.
Suffix
A group of letters commonly found at the ends of words.
(Able, -ly)
Syllable
A single unit of speech or a sub-divison of a word.
(Mag-ic)
Syndetic Listing
Listing which involves the use of conjuctions.
Synonym
A word similar in meaning to another word.
Taboo Language
Words that are avoided because they are considered offensive, embarrassing, obscene or unpleasant.
Tag Question
A question attached to the end of a statement.
Topic Loop
Occurs when a conversation returns to a previous topic.
Topic Marker
An utterance that moves a conversation on to another topic.
Transitive Verbs
Verbs which require an object.
Unvoiced Pause
A silent pause in speech.
Verb
A word that indicates a doing or being.