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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Inner Circle Model

Braj Kachru

English as a first language

Outer Circle Model

Braj Kachru

English as an institutional language, e.g. learnt through education and government

Expanding Circle Model

Braj Kachru

English learnt as a foreign language

S-curve model

Chen and Aitchison

Language starts at slow pace and then increases in pace and then stabalises again

Images of Language Change

Jean Aitchison

Who was the researcher who did Martha's Vineyard?

William Labov

What did Labov discover about Martha's vineyard?

Focus on dialect

Natives of the island (non tourists) used their language as part of their identity

What is Standard English?

Dialect of English with most prestige

E.g. used for the education system and formally written texts

What is slang?

Words and phrases considered informal.

What is dialect?

Features of language and variations of grammar

E.g. bap vs bun

What is taboo?

Language choice that is offensive


What is technology influenced words and phrases?

Use words and phrases coined from technology

E.g. ngl, btw

What is a neologism?

New words, especially with technology

E.g. emoji, selfie

What is occupational register?

Groups of words from a certain group of people

E.g. Gamers

What is Receieved Pronounciation?

Considered the correct accent

Linked to prestige

What is regional accent?

This is linked to where you live in the country and how you speak because of it.

What is accent?

Variation in pronounciation due to where you live

What is an idiomatic phrase?

A phrase that has an accepted meaning, despite not belonging to s dictionary.

Almost a metaphor?

E.g. part of the furniture

What is social mobility?

A person changing social class

Done through marriage, changing job, financial situation

What is MLE?

Multicultural London English

What is code switching?

A bilingual person switching between languages while talking

What is multiple negation?

A sentence contains more than one negative

What is plural marking?

Making a singular noun plural

What percent of people in Britain speak RP?


What is dialect levelling?

Different forms of English across Britain and becoming more similar

Loss of regional features

Who claims Britain is losing dialect differences?

Leslie Milroy (2002)

Paul Kerswill

Why does Leslie Milroy claim that Britain is losing regional dialect forms?

Because it is easier to travel across Britain meaning that we lose and change the socially constructed linguistic norms

What aspects of dialect are surviving?

Multiple negation

Use of ain't

What is the matched guise experiment?

People listening to the same person speaking in different dialects and giving their opinions on the speaker.

Who created the matched guise experiment?

Howard Giles

What is ethnocentricism?

When a person perceives their culture to be superior.

What did Choy and Dodd research about language diversity?

That teachers judge a students ability on their dialect.

What did Gary Ives research say about language diversity between ages?

He interviews 63 teenagers and 100% yes, language is different between ages

What did Penelope Eckert define the different ages to judge by?

Chronological age (number of years since birth)

Biological age (physical maturity)

Social age (life events, such as marriage and having children)

What did Jenny Cheshire claim about language between ages?

That language and age is dependent on life events

What did Robin Lakoff claim were theories of women's language?


Empty adjectives (divine, adorable, gorgeous)

Super-polite forms

Apologise more

Speak less frequently

Avoid coarse language

Tag questions

Indirect requests

Speak in italics, use tone to emphasise

What were Deborah Tannen's theories of women's language?

Status vs support

Independence vs intimacy

Advice vs understanding

Information vs feelings

Orders vs proposals

Conflict vs compromise

What does Deborah Cameron claim about women's language?

That men and women having different ways of speaking 'is one of the great myths of our time.'

What is one of the main features of occupational register?


What is convergence?

Using language to resemble those around us.

What is divergence?

Using language to distance yourselves from others

Who created the convergence/divergence theory?

Howard Giles

What is polari?

Coded language spoken by gay men in 1960s.

What is lavender language?

A special dialect and vocabulary used by the gay community

What is diachronic change?

The historical development of language.

Who is Samuel Johnson?

Wrote the first English dictionary

What is prescriptivsm?

Believe that language should be fixed, and any breaking of language rules is incorrect

What descriptivism?

Examination of language and how it's used.

No judgement of right or wrong language

What is synchronic change?

The study of language at a particular moment in time

What century was old English?

5th century

What century was middle English?

11th century

What century was early modern English?

15th century

What century was modern English?

18th century

What century is present day English?

20th century

When was the King James Bible written?

15th century, early modern English

When was the Johnson's dictionary written?

15th century, early modern English

What was the inkhorn debate?

Words of Latin roots were considered pretentious.

Huge sense of national pride in England for keeping anglo-saxon words

What is neosemy?

A new meaning develops for a word

What is 'change from below'?

Language changing unconsciously by the users

What is change from above?

Conscious changing to the English Language. Attempting to standardise the language.

What is ameliorarion?

A word acquiring a more pleasant meaning

What is pejoration?

A word acquiring worse meaning

What is polysemy?

A word acquiring multiple meanings

When was the Roman alphabet introduced?

6th century

What happened during the Great Vowel Shift?

Long vowels were raised so that the position of the tongue moved closer to the roof of the mouth

What were Jean Aitchisons language metaphors?

Damp spoon - Language change caused by people's laziness

Crumbling castle - Language is a beautiful old castle that needs preserving

Infectious disease - we catch language from others

What is the substratum theory?

That learning English Language as a second language guarantees imperfections and this will be passed on to further generations

What did Robert Phillipson argue about the spread of English Language?

That it disadvantages other languages, causing them to die out.