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48 Cards in this Set

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Meyer and Allen's Three-Components Organizational Commitment Model

Employees organizational commitment can be separated into three dimensions, affective, continuance, and normative commitments.

Affective committment

Defined as an employees positive emotional attachment based on a desire to commit.

Continuance commitment

Employees need to commit based upon perceived gains of staying versus potential loss.

Normative commitment

Employees emotional obligation to stay.

Organizational Alignment

Sharing a common purpose.

Having a short line of sight, understand how their role support overall strategy and success of the organization.

Employee Engagement

Engaged - happy

Non-Engaged - compliant, satisfying the minimum requirement

Actively Disengaged - unhappy, actively go the extra mile to spread unhappiness

Indifferent - dissatisfied, untapped potential, improving engagement could have significant impact on the organization.

Emotional intelligence

Ability to recognize and understand our emotions and the emotions of others. Effective leaders tend to have high EI. Strong communicators, generally care about employees and their well-being.

The Goleman Model

EI is viewed as a set of emotional and social competencies that contribute to managerial performance. Most popular writer and easiest to understand on the topic.

Goldman Terms

Self- self confidence, emotional and accurate awareness

Social- empathy, organizational awareness, service orientation

Relationship Management- influence, inspirational leadership, developing others, influence, building bonds, teamwork and collaboration

Self management- self control, trustworthy, adaptability, achievement, drive to succeed, initative, concientiousness

Models of Employee Engagement - Academic Models

The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)

The Job Engagement Scale (JES)

Social Exchange Theory (SET)

Job Engagement and Organizational Engagement

Utrecht Work Engagement

Self report of vigor, dedication and absorption.


New measure by Bruce Rich, Jeffery Lepine and Eean Crawford designed to assess William Kahn's definition of engagement. An expression of physical, cognitive, affective self when fully invested into the job role. Affective- emotions, Cognitive- attention and absorption, Physical Self Expression- energy exertion as related to work.

Job and Organizational Engagement

Two way relationship between employee and employer. Alan Saks


What is in it for me thoughts, drive engagement. Individuals weigh out costs and benefits of social exchanges and act in a way to maximize profits or benefits to be gained from those situations.

Non-academic Models

Q12 by Gallup

Say, Stay, Strive by Aon Hewitt

The Towers Watson Model


12 heavily researched questions. Rated on a five point scale, belong to one of four categories. Basic needs, management support, teamwork, and growth.

Say, Stay, Strive

Three key drivers to employee engagement, say- say positive things, stay- display an intense desire to maintain affiliation, strive- exert effort towards achieving organizational success.

Towers Watson Model

9 questions to find employees connection. Discretionary effort - achieve work goals, sense of well-being - with environment brings, productivity - environment supports productivity.

Balanced Scorecard

Tool for measuring organizational performance. Three areas, the customer, learning and growth, internal processes. Also financial.

Productivity Enhancement

Employee motivation, intrinsic personal satisfaction of completing a task, extrinsic external factors pay, benefits.


Job design/Job Characteristics Model

Employee involvement


Job Burnout

Job Characteristics Model

Richard Hackman and Edward Lawlers job characteristic model. Employees react positive to five core dimensions.

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance



Continuous Improvement Enhanced by...

Organizational design that open boundaries between organizations.

Hollow structure, outsource non core functions

Modular structure, outsource parts of products

Virtual structure, boundaryless organization

Idea management, structured process to move employee ideas from generation to conversion

Employee-Driven idea system, suggestion program where employees are rewarded and responsible for manging and implementing any idea they submit

Cross Functional Teams, group of people with different knowledge, backgrounds and experiences working towards a common goal

Attraction and Retention are enhanced through:

Employee satisfaction - happy employees

Recruitment and Selection - right person right fit

Fit (job company culture) - leave in the first year, not the right fit

Best Employer Mindset - competitive markets

Manager as Engaged Leaders

Organizational Culture

Variety of elements, core values, beliefs, norms and perceptions

Organizational Climate

Prevailing atmosphere. "mood" of the organization.


Standard of behavior, required outlined in policies and regulations, or emergent which are the social interactions

Total Quality Management TQM

Initatives figured on improving products and services. Japanese term Kaizen refers to continuous improvement.

PDCA Cycle

TQM process where you plan, do, check and act on the information.

Six Sigma

Newer concept, ensuring conformance to internal requirements through audits

Business Process Re-Engineering BPR

Term that applies to initatives that use industrial engineering techniques to re-engineer the way products are produced and services are delivered. Employees participation and empowerment are important elements.

Lean Manufacturing

Aimed at eliminating waste in customer relations, product design, supplier networks and factory management.

Socio-technical Systems STS

Designed to improve productivity, worker motivation and morale by considering the relation between nonhuman system and human system. Focus on work groups with more flexibility and responsibilities to with as a team to correct inefficiencies and with issues.

Communication Process

Made up of, the communicator, the message, the medium, the reciever and the feedback.


One on one.

Active Listening

Occurs when listener stops taking, puts speaker at ease, shows interest, removes distractions, shows patience, asks questions, hold temper, avoids making value judgements, listens to full story while restating, paraphrasing or summarizing.

The Grapevine

Gossip, peer to peer communication. Faster than formal channels.

Effective non-verbal communication

Paying attention to distance, orientation, posture, physical contact, expression, gesture etc.

Adam's Equity Theory

The Balance influences perceptions of Distributive Justice and Procedural Justice

Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

Positive Reinforcement - positive behavior positive consequence

Negative Reinforcement - positive behavior followed by removal of negative consequences

Punishment - negative behavior followed by negative consequences

Extinction - negative behavior followed by removal of positive consequences

Supervisory-led Team Meetings

Most effective approach when communicating organizational change. Information relayed to employee by Prime communicator.

Organizational Feedback

Employee Surveys

Also referred to as climate or attitude surveys. Conducted annually or biannual.

Survey Readiness Factor

Level of trust - confidential

Likelihood of a reaction - action on info

Receptivity to feedback - seriously taken

Ease of completion - easy to complete

Success of past surveys - past expectations

Teams come together...

To achieve a common goal. Effective teams have vision, goals and objectives. Make decisions through consensus, share leadership, and participate in open honest communication.

Stages of team development

Forming - dependent on leader. Leadership style is directing.

Storming - team members vie for position. Prevailing leadership style is coaching.

Norming - agreement and consensus forms. Prevailing leadership style is participating.

Performing - team knows what it is doing. Prevailing leadership style is delegating.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Physical - food, air, water

Security - safety, shelter, stability

Social - being loved, belonging, inclusion

Ego - self esteem, power, recognition

Self-Actualization - need for development creativity

Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Hygiene vs Motivational Needs

Higher Hygiene Factor does not guarantee higher job satisfaction. But low does guarantee less satisfaction. Higher motivational factors will lead to higher satisfaction.

Hygiene - pay, physical working conditions, job security, relations with others

Motivation - promotion, opportunity, recognition, responsibility, achievement

Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model

Five job characteristics contribute to intrinsic motivation.

Task identity - start to finish

Task significance - perceived importance

Skill variety - to complete job

Job autonomy - freedom to perform job

Job feedback - quantity and quality

Porter and Lawler's Expectancy Theory

Expectancy - Effect - will effort lead to high performance

Instrumentality - Performance - will lead to outcomes

Valence - Rewards - desirable outcomes