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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the adrenergic transmitter..

Noadrenaline


Adrenaline


Dopamine

What those adrenergic transmitter come from

Formed from the essential amino acid tyrosine

What is the transmitter for cholinergic nerves

Acetylcholine

What enzyme synthesis acetylcholine

Choline acetyltransferase enzyme




Acetyl CoA+Choline -------> Acetylcholine

What initiate the release of ACh

The intake of Ca2+

What enzyme that break the ACh to choline and acetate

Acetylcholine Esterase

What is the function of Serotonin?

Vasoconstrictor substance found in serum after blood has clotted




Neurotransmitter and local hormine in the peripheral vascular system




Mediates neurotransmission in PNS and CNS

Serotonin found in high concentration in

Blood platelets
Intestinal wall


Brain

What enzyme involve in the synthesis of Serotonin

Tryptophan hydroxylase




L-aromatic acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase)

Serotonin often stored in

Neurons




Chromaffin cells




as a co-transmitter together with many peptides hormone.

What enzyme involve in degradation of serotonin

Monamine Oxidase (MAO)




Degradation through oxidative deamination catalyze by MAO to 5-HIAA

What is the effect of serotonin (5-HT)

Stimulates GI motility


Stimulates fluid secretion and elicits nausea and vomiting by stimulating smooth muscle and sensory nerves in stomach


Constricts large vessel


Platelet aggregation


Stimulates nociceptive sensory nerve endings


Excite and inhibits some neurons in CNS

What are other important role of 5-HT

Migraine


Emesis


Appetite


Sleep/wake cycle


Depression

Mediator : Purines

Adenosine


ADP and ATP


ATP as NT at peripheral neuroeffector junctions and central synapses




Released of ATP is rapidly converted to ADP and adenosine

ADP act on platelets causing

Aggregation



Adenosine effect

Smooth muscle and nerve cell (acts through A1,A2 and A3 receptors_

Function of adenosine

Hypotension and cardiac depression


Inhibition of AV conduction


Inhibition of platelet aggregation


Bronchoconstriction


Presynaptic inhibition in CNS

Adenosine sometimes used for

Antidysrhythemic effect

Mediator : Peptides and Proteins

Soluble


Secreted by cells


Act on surface receptor

Peptides and protein can be devided into

Neurotransmitter


Neuroendocrine mediators


Hormone


Growth factors


Mediator of immune system

What is preprohormone

1.large protein


2.comprising a signal sequence plus the prohormone


3. contains the embedded sequence of one or more active peptides

Active peptides produce intracellularly by

selective enzymic cleavage



Peptide and proteins are located in

intracellular vesicles



Active peptides are stored in

releasable form

After sorting and process the peptides ..

the vesicles differentiated into secretory vesicles and exocytosis occur.

Constitutive release (plasma protein , clotting factor)

secretory vesicles are discharged as soon as they are formed ,secretion is continuous

Regulated release (neuropeptides and endocrine peptides)

Exocytosis is controlled by intracellular calcium as with release of conventional transmitter.

Protein and peptides are poor drugs because

poorly absorbed when given orally


short duration of action because of rapid degradation


fail to cross blood brain barrier


expensive to manufacture

What are important peptide antagonist used clinically

Naloxone


Losartan


Bosentan

Protein based therapeutic agents include

hormones


insuline


growth hormone


clotting factors


cytokines


antibodies


enzyme