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40 Cards in this Set

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Which diabetes drug causes: •Hypoglycemia? (3)

•Sulfonylureas (glyburide), amylin analogues (pramlintide), & insulin

What diabetes drug causes: •Lactic acidosis; diarrhea

•Metformin; less weight gain, so first line for most (not to use in renal failure)

What diabetes drug causes: •CHF/fluid retention

•Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone: PPAR-gamma)

Which diabetes drug causes: •Pancreatitis

•GLP-1 analogues (exenatide)

What term denotes fatigue, confusion, vomiting, fever, anorexia, and extremely high blood glucose?

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

Which biopolar disorder medication can cause diabetes insipidus?

Lithium

•Exophthalmos, thyroid bruit, diffuse uptake on thyroid scan

Grave’s disease

•Tender thyroid, post URI

•Thyroiditis

•Hyperthyroid, high TSH, T4, T3

•Pituitary tumor

•Hyperthyroid, low uptake on scan, no URI

•Surreptitious levothyroxine use

What gene is likely mutated in a parathyroid carcinoma?

RET

What kind of cancer does smoking cause directly to the lung?

Squamous cell carcinoma

•Episodic headache, HTN, flushing/pallor, palpitations

•Pheochromocytoma; high urine VMA; use alpha antagonist phenoxybenazamine before surgery; can be MEN2a, Men2b, or NF

•Diarrhea, flushing, wheezing

•Carcinoid; high 5-HIAA (SE metabolite) in urine; appendix tumor, surgery if lung

•HyperPTH (stones, ulcer), pituitary tumor (prolactin, GH), & pancreatic tumors (gastrinoma, VIPoma, insulinoma)

•MEN 1

•Biopsy shows medullary carcinoma of thyroid; secretes calcitonin, has RET gene mutation; with pheochromocytoma, parathyroid involvement

•MEN 2A (MEN2B, ganglioneuromatosis and marfinoid features)

•Vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, possible cocaine use

•Placental abruption

•Painless vaginal bleeding, often ~30 weeks

•Placenta previa, placenta overlies internal cervical os

Severe painless postpartum hemorrhage, previous C-section or previa

•Placenta accreta, placenta villi on the myometrium, defect in decidua basalis layer

•Painful massive postpartum hemorrhage

•Uterine rupture

•Long labor, soft uterus

•Uterine atony

No lactation, DI after delivery; sometimes shock

•Sheehan syndrome (peri-partum pituitary hemorrhage)

•Post menopausal vaginal bleeding

Endometrial cancer until proven otherwise (i.e. needs biopsy

•Abdominal pain, Last Menstrual Period 6-8 weeks ago, Urine Pregnancy Test positive, adnexal mass

•Ectopic pregnancy

•Severe HTN after 20 weeks gestation, proteinuria/end organ injury

•Preeclampsia; if with seizures = ecclampsia

•Preeclampsia, low platelets, elevated LFTs, hemolysis

•HELLP syndrome

•Post-partum complications include? (4)

•Depression; cardiomyopathy; PE; amniotic fluid embolism

•Cloudy amniotic fluid, septic newborn, what pathogen?

•Group B Strep

•AR, jaundice, hepatomegaly, cataracts, MR, Failure to thrive

•Galactosemia; galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase def

•Painful muscle cramps post-exercise, myoglobinuria, AR

McArdle's (glycogen storage dz 5); skeletal muscle glycogen

•Cardiomegaly, systemic Sx, early death, AR

•Pompe’s (type 2); acid maltase (lysosomal α-1,4 glucosidase def)

•Severe fasting hypoglycemia, increased lactate, hepatomegaly

•Von Gierke's (type 1); AR; glucose-6-phosphatase def

•Developmental delay,“gargoylism”, corneal clouding, HSM

Hurler’s; AR; a-1-iduronidase (a mucopolysaccharidoses def)

•Mild Hurler’s, aggressive behavior, no corneal clouding

•Hunter’s; X-linked Recessive; iduronate sulfatase def

•HSM, aseptic necrosis of femur, bone crises

•Gaucher’s; most common lysosomal storage dz; AR; glucocerebrosidase def

•HSM, progressive neurodegeneration, cherry red macula

•Niemann-Pick, AR, sphingomyelinase def

•Progressive neuorodegeneration, AR, cherry red macula, NO HSM

•Tay-Sachs; AR; hexoaminidase A, accumulate GM2 ganglioside def

•Peripheral neuropathy, dev. delay, optic atrophy, globoid cells

•Krabbe’s; AR; galactocerebrosidase def

•Peripheral neuropathy of hands/feet, angiokeratomas, CV/renal dz

•Fabry’s; XR; α-galactosidase A def

•Central and peripheral demylelination with ataxia and dementia

•Metachromatic leukodystrophy, AR, arylsulfatase A def, accumulate cereboside sulfate