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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 major endometrial cycles

menstrual, proliferative and secretory phases

what causes menstrual phase

high levels of E&P suppress LH levels, diminishing CL. Degeneration of endometrium occurs

what causes proliferative phase

estrogen produced by follicle development

what causes secretory phase

The rise of E triggers LH surge. This surge triggers CL to produce P and E.

after menstruation, what happens to endometrium

it is restored by proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells.

what drives the proliferation of cells that make up endometrium

estrogen secreted by granulosa cells of developing follicles

what happens during early secretory phase

P stimulates secretory changes in tissue

what happens in middle to late secretory phase`

endometrial glands become filled with secretions. Lasts 20 days.

what are the events in pregnancy

fertilization, implantation, placentation, and parturition

what happens to fertilized ovum

stays in fallopian tube for 3 days and becomes morula

define preimplantation

the morula enters uterus and stays free floating for 72hrs. embryo is nourished by uterus that makes proteins

what role does endometrium play in preimplantation

it only has a 19-23 day window that it is receptive; receptivity controlled by hormones

what signals does the embryo synthesize and why

human chorionic gonadotropin- sustains CL, which is asource of progesteron

immunosuppressive agents- control mothers immune response

proteases- facilitate invasion of trophoblast into the endometrium

phases of embryo implantation

apposition, adhesion, and invasion

what role does zona pelucida play in embryo hatching

it surrounds the blastocyst degenerates brofre initiation of implantation

define apposition

initial loose contact between the trophectoderm and endometrium

define adhesion

adhesion of trophoblast to uterine epithelium via ligand receptor. This dislodges uterine epithelial cells from their basal lamina, making it easier to access trophoblast to basal lamina for penetration into stromal layer

define invasion

trophoblast secretes secretions that simulate invasion of the endometrium and have root like projections that get blood supply

after invasion of the cell, what happens

it becomes decidual cells/decidua. Needs progesterone

function of placenta

carries oxygen, removes CO2 and waste from fetus

what happens after implantation

syncytiotrophoblast invades stroma of uterus. Within the blasts, are lacunae, fluid filled holes. 12 days later, it connects to veins. Cytotrophoblasts create small mounds known as primary chorionic villi. They eventually become secondary chorionic villus

characteristics of mature placenta

outer surface of chorionic villus is covered with thin layer of syncytiotrophoblast. Lacunae merge into one.

what hormones are secreted by placenta

hCg, progesterone, and estrogen

what is meant with the concept of maternal placental fetal uit

the placenta cannot make steroid hormones alone. Mother and fetus need to make em

what role does LDL cholesterol play

it is converted to progesterone by placenta and sent to mother

what are the three enzymes that placenta lacks for estrogen biosynthesis

fetal adrenal gland, liver supply-estrogen precursor and DHEA.

how doe fetus protect itself from exposure to high levels of steroid hormones

fetus conjugates steroid hormones to sulfate to reduce activity of hormones.