• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
refered to as the "master gland" by McGraw hill book
Pituitary gland pg. 766
the two parts of the pituitary gland
posterior and anterior
Anterior lobe of pituitary produces which hormones
thyroid-stimulating hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
prolactin (PRL)
and somatotropin also called(GH) growth Hormone
Posterior lobe of pituitary gland produces which hormones
ADH also called vasopressin and oxytocin (OT)
secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland is controlled by
gland located in the brain beneath the hypothalamus
small pea-shaped glands that are located on the surface of the thyroid gland. typically there are four glands
parathyroid glands
where are the parathyroid glands located
on the surface of the thyroid gland
This_____ gland plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood and bone by releasing______ hormone
parathyroid hormone
according to Mosby's, the anterior pituitary gland is also called
according to Mosby's, the posterior pituitary gland is also called
Thyroid releases which hormones
Thyroxin or T4 and triiodothyronine or T3 also
what does Calcitonin released by the Thyroid do
decreases the concentration of calcium in the blood by first acting on bone to inhibit its breakdown. With less bone being resorbed, less calcium moves out of bone into blood
What are T4 and T3 hormones made of and where are they produced
More abundant T4 = 4 idone atoms
T3=3 idone atoms
what do T3 and T4 hormones influence
They make cells speed up their release of energy from food. They stimulate cellular metabolism.
according to Mosby's, where are parathyroid glands located
on the back of the thyroid gland.
where is the pineal gland or pineal body located and what does it secrete
located in the middle of the brain and secretes melatonin at night and serotonin during the day. regulates sleep and wake cycles
gland sometimes called the third eye because it receives and responds to sensory information from the optic nerves
pineal gland
small gland that resembles a pine nut located near the roof of the third ventricle of the brain
pineal gland
most significant hormone produced by the pineal gland
what does melatonin do
inhibits the tropic hormones that affect the ovaries, and it is thought to be involved in regulating the onset of puberty and menstrual cycle in women. Also helps regulate internal clock
what kind of dietary deficiancey causes a goiter
Low dietary intake of iodine causes a painless enlargement of the thyroid gland called a goiter. The gland enlarges in an attempt to compensate for the lack of iodine in the diet necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
where does ADH work
ADH accelerates the reabsorption of water from urine in kidney tubules back into the blood. ADH acts to decrease urine volume.
what part of the pancrease contains alpha and beta cells
Pancreatic islets or
islets of langerhans

These glands are microscopic little clumps of cells scattered like islands in a sea among the pancreatic cells that secrete the pancreatic digestive juice
Alpha or A cells secrete what
What do Beta or B cells secrete
what is glycogenolysis
A chemical process in the liver accelerated by glucagon by which glucose stored in the liver cells in the form of glycogen is converted to glucose
two atagonist hormones that regulate blood sugar
Insulin and glucagon. Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration; glucagon increases it.
where is the thymus located
mediastinum and in infants may extend up into the neck as far as the lower edge of the thyroid gland.
what does the Thymus secrete and what does it do
Secretes Thymosin which is actually a group of several hormones that together play an important role in the development and function of the body's immune system.
describe the anatomy of the thymus
has a cortex and a medulla composed largely of lymphocytes (white blood cells) wheighs little more than an Oz.
according to McGraw Hill what does Thymus secrete
thymopoietin, thymosin, and other hormones
when is Thymus its largest
What are the parts of the Adrenal glands
the Cortex and the medulla
what does the Adrenal Cortex produce or secrete
Glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone)

Mineralocorticoids (aldesterone)

Androgenic, or sex, hormones
(like dihydroepiandrosterone)

remember sugar, salt, sex
What does the Adrenal Medulla produce or secrete
Epi and Norepi
This condition results from hypersecretion of glucocorticoid hormone by a tumor of the middle zone of the adrenal cortex
Cushings syndrome
It's most noticeable features are the so-called moon face and the buffalo hump on the upper back that develop because of the redistribution of body fat.
Cushings syndrome
What causes Cushings syndrome
Tumors of the adrenal cortex located in the middle zone often result in the production of abnormally large amounts of glucocorticoids.
Deficiency or hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones results in a condition called
Addison disease
How are Ca++ level concentrations increased in the blood
Parathyroid gland produces parathyroid hormone that stimulates osteoclasts to increase their breakdown of bone's hard matrix, a process that frees the Ca++ stored in the matrix which then moves out of bone into blood, and this in turn increases bloods Ca++ concentration.
two hormone antagonists that control blood Ca++ levels
Calcatonin from Thyroid decreases blood Ca++

Parathyroid hormone from parathyroid gland increases Blood Ca++
where is prolactin produced and what does it do
produced in anterior pituitary. during pregnancy, prolactin stimulates the breast development necessary for eventual alctation. Also, soon after delivery of a baby, prolactin stimulates the breasts to start secreting milk.

Also called lactogenic hormone.
caused by an increased production of glucocorticoids that is sometimes caused by an adrenal tumor
cushings syndrome
Adrenal Cortex secretes
minerlocorticoids main one is Aldosterone (SALT

Glucocorticoids mainly Cortisone. increase gluconeogenesis. (SUGAR)

sex hormones (SEX)
define gluconeogenesis
a process that converts amino acids or fatty acids to glucose and that is performed mainly by liver cells.
According to Mosby's pg 317 which gland was once called the master gland but is no longer called that because it is regulated by the hypothalamus
which gland controls and regulates most endocrine glands
located in the lower part of the brain. it is involved in the regulation of metabolism and body temperature. It secretes hormones that either stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland
This condition results from hyposecretion of the thyroid gland during the adult years. physical manifestions of edema around the eyes and facial puffiness
endocrine gland that lies in the neck just below the larynx
thyroid gland disorders
graves diseas
cretinism (pre-adult)
myxedema (adult); goiter
what is the difference between endocine glands and exocrine glands
Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts that empty onto a surface or into a cavity. such as sweat and salivary glands as well as pancreatic juices

Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete chemicals known as hormones into intercellular spaces where hormones diffuse directly into the blood and are carried throughout the body where they bind to a target organ.
feedback mechanisms that tend to reverse any deviations from normal
negative feed back loops
according to Mosby's normal blood glucose level is
a condition caused by excess glucose being filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and lost in the urine
Diabetics often have a triad of symptoms called the "three P's" commonly associated with hyperglycemia. what are they
(increased urine output)

(increased thirst)

(increased appetite)
onset time of DKA
tends to be gradual and may evlolve orver 12-24 hours or longer
results from a lack of insulin and involves a change in metabolism
how are ketones formed
resulting from a lack of insulin alternative energy sources, including lipids, are metabolized causing hepatic ketonebody production and release which car result in hyperketonemia
insulin dependant diabetes
Type I
adult onset or noninsulin dependent diabetes
Type II
in this type of diabetes there is a resistance to insulin with an insulin secretion defect
Type II
Type II diabetes is more common in which demographic
individuals who are older than 40 in which there is a family history of diabetes.
the metabolism of fatty acids leads to the production of
acidic ketones which leads to the development of ketoacidosis
what does glucagon do
stimulates cells to break down glycogen into glucose

stimulates cells to convert noncarbohydrates into glucose
s/s of testicular torsion
testicle swelling and pain
urinary frequency
abdominal pain
testicle may ride high in the scrotal sac compared to the contralaterl testicle
the twisting of the spermatic cord and testicle upon itself, initially resulting in venous occlusion and engorgement
testicular torsion
in testicular torsion salvage of the testicle is usually successful if the detorsion occurs within ____hours
s/s of inguinal hernia
a new or recurrent lump in the abdomen or inguinal region. presence of pain in the area can indicate incarceration or strangulation.
neurologic dysfunction during or immediately after dialysis is most frequently due to the
disequilibrium syndrome.
s/s of disequalibrium syndrome
occurs during or immediately after dialysis. pt. presents with nausea, vomiting, and hypertension as well as seizures and loss of consciousness.
the cause of this syndrom is thought to be cerebral edema due to osmolar differences
disequilibrium syndrome.
nongonorrheal urethritis is usually caused by
chlamydial infection
s/s of chlamydial infection
genital ulcers
swollen lymph nodes
muscle pain
inflamation of the urethra that commonly results from bacterial infection, often gonorrhea
how does hemodyalysis work
a semipermeale membrane is used to separate large (nondiffusible) particles such as blood cells from small (diffusible) ones such as urea and other wastes. blood from the radial artery passing through a porous (semipermeable) cellophane tube that is house in a tank like container where the tube is surrounded by a bath or dialyzing solution containaing varying concentrations of electrolytes and other chemicals. the pores in the membrane are small and allow only very small molecules, such as urea, to escape into the surrounding fluid. Larger molecules and blood cells cannot excape and are returned through the tube to reenter the pt. via a wrist vein.
how does CAPD work
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
1 to 3 L of sterile dialysis fluid is introduced directly into the peritoneal cavity through an opening in the abdominal wall. peritoneal membranes in the abd. cavity transfer waste products from the blood into the dialysis fluid, which is then drained back into a plastic container after about 2 hours
describe visceral pain
originates in the organs of the abd. and pelvis. visceral pain receptors in the organs produce a vague, aching, difficult-to-localize pain as opposed to somatic pain
describe somatic pain
pain receptors of the skin, bones, tendons, or blood vessels, which produce a sharp, well defined pain
how can pain from disorders of the intra-abdominal urinary trat present
pt. may experience a slowly developing, vague, nonlocalized (visceral) pain that does not become localized until the infection reaches somatic receptors of the peritoneum, at which time the pain becomes sharper and more localized.
renal failure that is an abrupt reduction in kidney function characterized by oliguria and a sharp rise in nitrogenous compounds in the blood
The concentration of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is often assessed by the ___ test
blood urea nitrogen
BUN test
ARF can be caused by
sever burns
acute glomerulonephitis or
pyelonephritis, or
obstruction of the lower UT may progress to failure
A slow, progressive condition resulting from the gradual loss of nephrons
what causes CRF
systemic autoimmune disorders
obstructive disorders
describe the 1st stage of CRF
some nephrons are lost but the remaining healthy ones compensate by enlarging and taking over the function of the lost nephrons. usually asymptomatic and can last years
describe the 2nd stage of CRF
called renal insufficiency. during this stage, the kidney can no longer adapt to the loss of nephrons. the remaining healthy nephrons cannot handle the urea load, and BUN levels climb dramatically. because the kidney's ability to concentrate urine is impaired, polyuria and dehydration may occur
describe stage 3 of CRF
called uremia or uremic syndrome
characterized by a very high BUN value caused by loss of kidney urine production and oliguria. because fluids are retained by the body rather than being eliminated by the kidneys, edema and hypertension often occur. unless transplanted or dialysized loss of kidney function will progress to death.
what is urinary outlet obstuction
post renal failure often called obstructive renal failure and is caused by obstruction of the urinary tract at any level
obstuction of the bladder can be caused by what
kidney stones
blood clots
bladder cancers or polyps
neurogenic bladder due to diabetes or spinal cord injuries
benign prostatic hypertrophy
how long can CRF last before progressing to ESRD
10-20 years
Describe ESRD
kidney function is less than 10% of baseline. and is fatal without transplant or dialysis
single greatest cause ofESRD
diabetic nephropathy
what are the four conditions that fall under the blanket term of prostatitis
1. Acute bacterial prostatitis

2. Chronic bacterial prostatitis

3. Chronic prostatitis

4. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
prostatitis characterized by chills; fever; pain in the lower back, perineum, base of the penis, or genital area; urinary frequency or urgency; dysuria; and white blood cells and bacteria in the urine
Acute bacterial prostatitis
prostatitis that occurs when an acute infection persists, whether treated or not, due to a defect in the prostate itself, which allows the continued existence of bacteria in the urinary tract
Chronic bacterial prostatitis
prostatitis that is a poorly understood syndrome of symptoms and signs of becterial prostatitis, including at times the presence of white cells in the semem or urine but with no evidence of a bacterial causative agent. Symptoms may persist or may come and go, but antibiotic therapy is ineffective
Chronic prostatitis
prostatitis that is defined as the presence of white blood cells in the semen in the absence of symptoms or a causative agent
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
another name for kidney stones
renal calculi
How do Kidney stones form
ctystalized mineral chunks develop when calcium and other minerals, such as uric acid, crystalize on the renal calculi, then break off into the urine.
what is renal colic
larger kidney stones that obstruct the ureters cause intense pain called renal colic as rhythmic muscle contractions of the ureter attempt to dislodge the stones
the technical name for the presence of a kidney stone in the ureter
s/s of kidney stones
pt. may complain of pain, which waxes and wanes, in the flank, abd. or groin, and they may complain of radiation to the vulva or testicles. Other symptoms include nausea, diaphoresis, dysuria, urinary urgency or frequency, and the urge to defecate.
what % of the total blood pumped by the heart each minute enters the kidneys
20%. The rate of blood flow through this organ is among the highest in the body.
How does the body control the amount of urine that it excretes
it does this mainly by controlling the amount of water and disolved substances that are reabsorbed by the convoluted tubules
what are the 3 processes that form urine
explain the filtration process in the urine formation process
high BP coming into the glomerulus pushes (filters) water and dissolved substances out of the glomeruli into the Bowman capsule
explain the REABSORPTION process as part of the formation of urine
Water, glucose and other nutrients, and sodium and other ions are reabsorbed begining in the proximal convoluted tubules and continues in the Henle loop, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts.
the process by which substances move into urine in the distal and collecting ducts from blood in the capillaries
during secretion what moves back into renal tubules
hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and certain drugs
the enzyme RENIN is released where and what does it activate
renin is released by the juxtaglomerular apparatus when blood volume and pressure drop below normal. This initiates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) which constricts blood vessels and promotes water retention
the "urine decreasing hormone"
ADH produced by the posterior pituitary
Hormone that increases urine volume
the salt-and water-losing hormone
what is micturation
urination or voiding
a general term referring to kidney disease, especially inflammatory conditions
refers to inflammation of the renal pelvis and connective tissues of the kidney
litteraly means pelvisnephritis
refers to an inflamation of the bladder