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88 Cards in this Set

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How much is the normal tidal volume does the alveolar ventilation account for

350 milliliters

Normal tidal volume equals 500 milliliters

The term pathophysiology means what

Changes in normal physiology due to disease or injury

If a patient has an asthma attack with severe Bronco constriction what effect can have on his ability to ventilate the alveoli

It will increase airway resistance

Airway compliance is a measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to stretch distend and expand. airway resistance is related to the ease of air flow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli

The majority of carbon dioxide is transported in the body by this mechanism

By the blood stream as a bicarbonate ions

What is the name of the ventilatory volume that is calculated by multiplying the tidal volume by the frequency of ventilation

Minute ventilation

The exchange of gases at the peripheral tissue capillary level is responsible for the removal of what waste substances from the cells

Carbon dioxide

Cardiac output is composed of what

Stroke volume and heart rate

Cardiac output is defined as the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in 1 minutes

What is the process that produces carbon dioxide in the body

An end product of normal cell metabolism

As the diaphragm contracts the patient...


An example of a patient having respiratory compromise due to a disruption of pleural linings would include what

A pneumothorax

Ambient air contains mostly what






The normal signal for respiratory center of the brain to stimulate the respiratory muscles to increase ventilations would be what

The amount of co2 in the arterial blood

Why should EMS providers in Mr oxygen to a patient suspected of hypoxia

More oxygen in the inspired air will increase the amount absorbed by the blood

If a patient was breathing ambient air how would you document the amount of oxygen present for alveolar ventilation in percentage form


The basic primary fuel for the cells is what


Ultimately the sodium potassium pump in the cell will failed because of a lack of


What sensory structures are the first to detect arterial blood pressure changes


If the barrel receptors in the aortic root sense a drop in aortic root systolic pressure it will send an impulse to what region of the brain and for what purpose

Brain stem to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system

A decrease in blood pressure prompted baroreceptors to signal the brainstem to alter heart function and vessel size to increase the blood pressure. The cardio excitatory and vasomotor centers send out sympathetic nervous system impulses to increase the heart rate and myocardial contractility and to constrict the vessels. Although ACTH maybe released in a shock state, it is not from the brainstem stimulating the sympathetic nervous system.

When a patient has a lower airway obstruction the most likely problem is what


The average size adult has a minute ventilation of how many liters per minute

6 liters

What effect would systemic vasoconstriction have on the blood pressure

The blood pressure increases

Oxygen is transported through the blood by binding to what


During anaerobic metabolism in cells what is responsible for creating the acidic state of the blood

Lactic acid accumulation

If a patient is in shock what does his pulse increase

Because of sympathetic nervous system stimulation

What is the basic function of hydrostatic pressure

Is a force that pushes food out of the Vestal capillary bed

From what negative effect regarding gas diffusion in the alveoli would a patient with pulmonary edema suffer

Inability to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide

What is the name of the amount of air breathe in and out with each individual breath

Tidal volume

Because of dilation of the vascular system in neurogenic shock you expect the blood pressure to what


The component of whole blood that is primarily composed of water is called what


If too much sodium accumulates inside the cell cell begins to what


When considering the normal tidal volume how much is that is accounted for by the dead space

150 milliliters

What are the two basic molecules that are necessary for normal cell metabolism energy creation and function

Oxygen and glucose

The distribution of blood flow through the micro-circulation is primarily responsive to what

Local tissue needs

The bility of the body to ventilate is an example of what law of physics

Boyle's law

The pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship when temperature is held constant

In a healthy adult the respiratory rate and depth is regulated primarily by detecting the level of what in the bloodstream

Carbon dioxide levels

The emt should recall that if the patient has a mismatch between the ventilation and perfusion of the lungs what negative outcome could happen

Hypoxia can occur at the cellular level

Why is it so important for the emt to see you any open penetrations into the chest as quickly as possible?

The lungs will collapse if a gap between the two pleural membranes

If the patient has a drop in the preload to the Hart what would be the effect in the patient's peripheral perfusion status?

Peripheral perfusion will likely drop

When an increase of blood in the left ventricle causes stretching of the ventricle the heart does what?

Contracts more forcefully

Starlings law

What are the main constituents of plasma?

Water and proteins

In order to allow for proper metabolism of peripheral tissues, there must be a constant supply of blood flow, otherwise known as:


Belly of the sodium potassium pump may lead to what detrimental cellular change?

The cell will swell

What value does the intrathoracic pressure drop to during inhalation?

758 millimeters of mercury

For the appropriate VQ ratio the patient will need to have each of the following EXCEPT:

Decreased fluid volume traveling to the bottom lung fields

VQ ratio equals ventilation perfusion ratio of the alveoli in the lungs with the capillary bed

In hypoperfusion, the fall in cardiac output, as detected by the baroreceptors, activate several body systems that attempt to reestablish a normal blood pressure in a process known as:


The role of oxygen in the body is:

Required for normal cell metabolism

Why would a hypoxic patient who has severe bleeding not be benefited greatly by the administration of supplemental oxygen

People who have lost blood have also lost the hemoglobin that carries oxygen

The restriction of air plugs that is related to the diameter of the airways is called the

Airway resistance

You are caring for a patient who was involved in a farming accident where he is exposed to insecticides used on vegetation. You contact a Poison Control Center, which advises you that your chemical will have significant parasympathetic effects on the body. What would you expect this to mean to the patient's body?

Hypotension low blood pressure

What would be the expected result of the body when a patient has massive vasodilation secondary to a severe blood infection?

The heart rate and stroke volume will attempt to increase

To calculate the cardiac output the emt knows to multiply the heart rate by what

Stroke volume

One of the fundamental underlying causes of respiratory compromise is what

Failure of the alveolar capillary exchange of gases

Which ion will start to accumulate within the cell should the sodium potassium pump fail following a period of hypoxia


There is an increase stretch to the baroreceptors above normal will be the response

A message will be sent to the brain stem to increase parasympathetic tone

A patient as an initial blood pressure of 120 over 78 the heart rate of 86 per minute five minutes later his blood pressure is 128 over 92 with a heart rate of 82 per minute. Which of the following statements about the change in the vitals is most correct

The patient has experienced an increase in his systemic vascular resistance

You are treating a patient who has lost a significant amount of blood volume after a traumatic injury, & a systolic pressure is low. What body function will not be part of the compensatory mechanism trying to maintain a normal perfusion pressure?

Parasympathetic stimulation

Which of the following situations could cause poor tissue oxygenation of the extremities despite the arterial blood being oxygenated. Is it a narcotic overdose, dropping systolic blood pressure, spinal injury, brain tumor.

Dropping systolic blood pressure

If the heart rate increases slightly, how was affect the cardiac output?

It will enhance cardiac output

A lack of energy at the cellular level will cause the failure of what process within the cellular wall that results in the cell swelling and bursting? Is it electron transport chain: oxidative phosphorylation: sodium potassium pump: cellular respiration.

Sodium potassium pump

Which one of the patients would have a perfusion deficit according to the VQ ratio? Is it asthma: bronchial obstruction: pulmonary embolus: pneumonia

Pulmonary embolus

If a patient is in shock ymake he have poor red blood cell oxygenation? Too much blood leaks out of the capillaries: the sugar level is too low and sales: he's breathing to slowly: decreased lung perfusion can contribute to cellular hypoxia

Decreased lung perfusion can contribute to cellular hypoxia

Red blood cells compromise what percentage of blood volume in men


A normal size adult has a total volume of approximately how many milliliters?


The normal minute volume is about

6000 milliliters

Which of the following cellular effects will not likely happen to a patient who is breathing in toxic gases? Is it the cells may be unable to adequately pick up and carry oxygen to the tissues: oxygen molecules may be displaced and the sales can suffocate: oxygen will take out on a toxic effect in the body and cause cellular death: the cells may be unable to use the oxygen present

Oxygen will take on a toxic effect in the body and cause cellular death

A patient has to stay in significant blood loss due to an injury. Why does it lead to shock? Is It this Cells we got fluid to surrounding tissue: the loss of clotting factors causes all the body cells to bleed: because of blood he loses has a cell sugar supply: loss of blood causes diminish cellular perfusion

Loss of blood causes diminished

The peripheral chemoreceptors are most sensitive to what? is it acid base balance: oxygen concentration: sugar levels: carbon dioxide level

Oxygen concentration

During exhalation, what is the approximate pressure in the thorax?

761 millimeters mercury

What two divisions of the nervous system help to control blood flow through the arterioles? Is it parasympathetic and sympathetic: voluntary and cerebellar: sympathetic and anti sympathetic: autonomic and voluntary

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

How does the majority of carbon dioxide in the body get eliminated? Is it through the pulmonary system: through the renal system: through the vascular system: through the pancreatic system

Through the pulmonary system

The patient has multiple ribs fractured that alter his ability to increase his intrathoracic volume, what kind of ventilatory disturbance with this Peete? Would it be changing resistance: change in opposition: change and compliance: change the passivity

Changing compliance

If there were a pathological change the alveoli, what finding may the emt note in the patient?

Trouble breathing

If a bleb on a lung tissue ruptures and air accumulates in the pleural space, what is the most likely result of this? Is it a collapse of the long with a change in alveolar ventilation problem arise and the oxygen content of the blood: a decrease in the respiratory rate: and immediate change in the patient mental status

Collapse of the long with a change in alveolar ventilation

In order to best understand pathophysiology, the emt should first understand

Anatomy and physiology

An example of a patient having respiratory compromise you to a respiratory problem with the central nervous system would include is it an upper airway obstruction: asthma: hypoperfusion : a spinal cord injury

A spinal cord injury

When a patient is severely burned over most of his body the cellular and vascular damage created by the Bern results in a large protein molecules leaving the vascular space. As a result of this, which of the choices will the patient experience? Is it low hydrostatic pressure: low oncotic pressure: high oncotic pressure: high hydrostatic pressure

Low oncotic pressure

Why should the patient who is in shock be administered oxygen? Is it because the vessels in the brain are dilated: the oxygen helps to increase the blood flow through the lungs: the oxygen will help to lower the body temperature: the patient may be hypoxia at the cellular level

The patient may be hypoxia at the cellular level

If you are ventilating a patient with a puncture hole to the lung following a stabbing, what negative outcome that you actually produce or contribute to? Is it hypertension: bradycardia: hypoxia: hypoglycema


What is the effect of a decreased tidal volume in a patient who has a verb pressure? Is it the perfusion will increase: you will breathe faster to keep the minute volume normal: the heart rate slows to compensate: the blood flow through the heart slows down

He will be faster to keep them minute volume normal

What does FDO2 stand for

Fraction of delivered oxygen

During the relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, what happens to the intrathoracic size and pressure? Is it decides stays the same, but the pressure decreases: the size decreases and pressure decreases going the size decreases and the pressure increases: the size stays the same, but the pressure increases

The pressure increases

Pressure and volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole is called what


But working within als partner, you observe her starting an IV on a trauma patient with an arterial bleed. You know that this is beneficial because what? It will help carry and prevent free radical formations from hyperoxia: it will increase the amount of clotting factors in the patient's blood: extra fluid will increase the preload to the heart: it will cause the heart rate to slow down

Extra fluid will increase the preload to the heart

Which of the following elements, if diminished or absent in a patient's blood stream, could cause uncontrolled bleeding? Is it red blood cells: white blood cells: platelets: albumen proteins



Which of the following factors is not considered to be a determinant of stroke volume? Is it heart rate: contractility: preload: afterload

Heart rate

If the patient experiences a drop in the respiratory rate due to a drug overdose, what will be the effect on the patients minute ventilation? Will it be the minute volume will initially increase, then it will drop: there will be no change in the minute volume: 2 minute volume will increase: the minute volume will decrease

The minute volume will decrease

The adequate delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients to and removal of wastes from all the tissues of the body is called what


What generates the force that results in hydrostatic pressure is it the contraction of the left ventricle: gravity flows of venous blood from the brain and upper extremities: blood flow through the lungs during breathing: the effects of large proteins in the blood

Contraction of the left ventricle

Not the resting hydrostatic pressure but the maximum hydrostatic pressure