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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is an IV drug route?


What is an SL drug route?


What is an PO drug route?

By mouth

What is an IM drug route?


What is an SQ or SC drug route?


What is an IO drug route?


What is a drug route that is applied directly to the skin called?


What is an IN drug route?


What is an PR drug route?

Per rectum

Under the Title 22 State Scope of Practice, what two drugs are allowed to be transported and administered by an EMT

Oxygen and Glucose

What is the scope of practice for an EMT-B in terms of IV Monitoring?

EMTs may monitor, maintain, and adjust a preset rate of flow, or shut off IV if there are signs of infiltration.

What three medications can an EMT assist the patient or allow the patient to self administer?

Nitroglycerin, Epinephrine, Bronchodilator Inhaler

Are EMTs allowed to carry these three medicines; Nitroglycerin, Epinephrine, Bronchodilator Inhaler; on the unit or in the jump kit?


After administering or assisting the patient with any of the three drugs within your scope of practice, what should you do?

Transport the patient immediately to the nearest hospital or have an ALS unit en route.

What is an indication that a patient should be administered nitroglycerin?

Chest pain

What are the contraindications for administering a patient nitroglycerin

The patient has a head injury or has a BP less than 100 systolic or has had viagra within 24/hrs or has had 3 doses prior to arrival.

What is an Indication that a patient should be administered an Epinephrine auto injector?

The patient has a sever allergic reaction

Where do you inject an Epinephrine auto injector?

Upper-Outer thigh only

What is an indication that a patient should be administered a Bronchodilator Inhaler?

Dyspnea, associated with bronchospasm

What are the contraindications for administering a Bronchodilator Inhaler?

The patient is unable to use the device or has taken the maximum does PTA.

What should you do with the Bronchodilator Inhaler when it is to be administered in a cold environment?

Roll Inhaler between palms to warm it up.

Monitoring IV with additives

Folic Acid -

1mg/1000ml Max

Monitoring IV with additives

Multivitamins -

1 vial/1000ml Max

Monitoring IV with additives

Magnesium Sulfate -

2 grams/1000ml (in conjunction with MVI)

Monitoring IV with additives

Thiamin -

100mg/1000ml Max

What are the two additives that require an infusion pump?

Potassium Chloride and Total Parent Nutrition

What are the two main rules for patient controlled infusion pumps?

They may only be activated by the patient or caregiver and must be transported locked.

Can an EMT transport Central Venous Monitoring devices, Swan Ganz catheters, or Arterial lines?


What are the acute risks of exposure to Chemotherapy?

Irritation, burning, tissue destruction

What are the chronic risks of exposure to Chemotherapy?

Genetic damage, birth defects, cancer

Name all the bones in the face and skull

(I don't know just do it)

Parietal bone, Frontal bone, Sphenoid bone, Temporal bone, Zygomatic bone, Nasal bones, Lacrimal bone, Ethmoid bone, Vomer, Maxillae, Maxilla, Middle and Inferior nasal Concha, Mandible, Palatine, and Occipital bone.

How many bones are in the skeletal system?



What is the main purpose of muscles?

Provide movement and generate heat


What is the main purpose of ligaments?

Connect bone to bone


What is the main purpose of tendons?

Connect bone to muscle


What is the main purpose of bones?

Provide shape

Name all the parts of the neck

Thyroid cartilage, Cricoid cartilage, Cricothyroid membrane, Trachea, Carotid arteries, Sternocleidomastoid muscle.

How many vertebrae are in the spinal column?

How many vertebrae are Cervical?

How many are Thoracic?

How many are Lumbar?

How many are Sacrum?

How many are Coccyx?

33 vertebrae

7 Cervical

12 Thoracic

5 Lumbar

5 Sacrum

5 Coccyx

Skeletal muscles are?

Voluntary muscles attached to the body.

Smooth muscles are?

Involuntary muscles that carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body.

What is the Cardiac muscle?

An involuntary muscle that has it's own blood supply and electrical system which can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only 4-6 minutes.

What is a sprain injury?

What is a strain injury?

Joint Injury with tearing of ligaments.

Stretching or tearing of a muscle.

What is ecchymosis?

Discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath, typically caused by bruising.

What is a dislocation injury?

A disruption of the joint in which the bone ends are no longer in contact and the supporting ligaments are torn.

What is a closed fracture?

What is an open fracture?

A fracture that does not break the skin.

A fracture that does break the skin.

What is a non-displaced fracture?

What is a displaced fracture?

A simple crack

A deformity

What is a green stick fracture?

An incomplete fracture that only passes partway through the bone, commonly occurs in children.

What is a spiral fracture?

Torsion fracture bone has been twisted apart.

What is a transverse fracture?

A fracture that occurs at a right angle or straight across bone.

What is a comminuted fracture?

The bones are broken into two or more fragments.

What is a pathologic fracture?

A fracture of a weakened bone.

What is an Epiphyseal fracture?

Fracture of growth section of bone, can hinder growth if not treated properly.

How much blood can a fracture Femur bleed internally?

The Pelvis?

The Tibia?

1 Liter

1 Liter

500 cc

What does the presentation of a hip fracture look like?

Shortened, externally rotated

What does the presentation of a hip dislocation look like?

Usually flexed and internally rotated

What is the treatment for a hip fracture/dislocation?

Use the draw sheet method to transport patient, do not attempt to straighten leg, support with rolled blankets, and prevent hip movement.

What should you always check before and after splinting or immobilizing a patient?

PMSC in all extremities

What are the hazards of improper splinting?

Further damage, delay in transport, reduction of distal circulation, aggravation of injury, injury to tissue, nerves, blood vessels, or muscle.

What are possible causes of behavioral problems?

Alcohol and drugs, head injury, metabolic disorders, neurological, psychiatric illness, stress response.

What is implied consent?

The patient is not mentally competent to make a decision.

If you are not sure of the mental competence of the patient or whether or not consent is implied what should you do?

Request law enforcement for assistance.

When should you use restraints on a patient? Should law Enforcement be involved? How much force should you use?

Only use restraints in an emergency, law enforcement should be involved, and only use reasonable force.

What risk factors should you take into consideration when assessing the level of danger of a potentially violent patient?

Past history, Posture, Scene, Vocal activity, Physical activity.

What is Diabetes?

A disease in which there is inadequate insulin produced by the body.

What is Glucose?

Source of energy required by all cells for normal functioning.

What is Insulin?

Hormone secreted by pancreas - allows cells to use glucose.

What is the range for a normal glucose level?

80-120 glucose units or something (f**k)

What is Hypoglycemia?

Low glucose level

What is Hyperglycemia?

High glucose level

What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is juvenile onset while Type 2 diabetes is adult onset.

Do Type 1 Diabetes patients produce any insulin naturally in their body?


Do Type 2 Diabetes patients produce any insulin naturally in their body?

Yes, but inadequate amounts.

What are the signs and symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Vomiting, Abdominal pain, Kussmaul respirations (deep and labored), Unconsciousness

What is the cause of a diabetic coma?

Insufficient Insulin

What are the signs of a diabetic coma?

Slow onset of ALOC, dehydration, kussmaul respirations, "fruity" breath odor.

What is the cause of insulin shock?

An excess of insulin

What are the signs of insulin shock?

Rapid onset ALOC, pale, cool, diaphoretic (sweating), dizziness, headache, rapid pulse, fainting, seizure, or coma.

If a patient appears to be intoxicated, what should an EMT suspect other than that they may have drank a lot?

That the patient is Hypoglycemic.

What questions would you ask a diabetic patient?

Have you taken insulin or hypoglycemics?

Have you taken your usual does today?

Have you eaten normally today?

Any illness, unusual activity, or stress today?

What is the treatment for any ALOC diabetic patient?

High flow O2 via mask

Supine or left lateral position

Administer Oral glucose

Rapid transport

What is the anatomy of the skin

Epidermis(outermost layer), Dermis, Hypodermis, Hair follicles, Sweat glands, arrector pili muscle.

What is the function of the skin?

Protection, sensation, temperature control

What is a Hematoma?

Pool of blood that has collected in the body.

What is a crushing injury?

A great amount of force applied to the body for a long period of time.

Abrasions are caused by?


What is an avulsion?

Skin is either hanging as a flap or torn completely off.

How would you describe arterial bleeding?

Spurting, Lighter

How would you describe venous bleeding?

Flowing, Darker

How would you describe capillary bleeding?


How do you take control of bleeding?

Direct pressure

Elevate extremity

Pressure dressing

Pressure points

Tourniquet (last resort)

How do you apply a tourniquet?

Pad skin with dressing

Wrap a bandage around the wound twice (loosely)

Use a wooden dowel to twist the bandage tightly around wound and secure

Document "TK" and time and place on patient

When should you attempt to move or remove an impaled object

If it interferes with CPR, otherwise secure object with bulky dressing.

How should you take control of bleeding when the patient is bleeding from the ears, penetrating head wounds, the rectum, or the vagina?

Use loose dressings

Do not stop blood flow

Do not pack

Do not apply pressure

What is a crush injury?

It is an injury from a compressive force sufficient to interfere with the normal metabolic function of the involved tissue.

What is crush syndrome?

When acids and potassium spill into the surrounding tissue as a side affect of a crush injury, upon reperfusion, the acids and potassium flow to the heart and it is bad.

What is a proper burn assessment?

Depth of burn

Extent of burn or BSA (burn surface area)

Identify critical burn

Under 5 or over 55?

What are the parameters that define a critical burn?

Burns involving respiratory tract

Any electrical burns

Face, hands, feet or genitalia

2nd degree with over 30% BSA

3rd degree with over 10% BSA

What is the treatment for a thermal burn?

Stop the burning process

assess burn

High flow O2

Remove clothing and jewelry

Cool burn areas

Cover with clean dressing/sheet

Be aware of hypothermia


Electrical burns are scary, why are they scary?

Because you can't see that sh*t!

What is the treatment for chemical burns?

Remove chemical from patient

Remove all clothing

Flush with water for 15 to 20 minutes

Rapid transport

What do you do if the patient is suffering from radiation burns?

Summon expert assistance

Contain source of radiation

Remove clothing

Follow decontamination procedures