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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
mouth
opening through which food passes into the body
tongue
consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in the posterior region of the mouth. It provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech.
palate
seperates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
soft palate
posterior portion, not supported by bone
hard palate
anterior portion, supported by bone
uvula
soft V-shaped mass that extends from the soft palate, directs food into throat
pharynx, throat
performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
esophagus
10-inch tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
cardia
area around the opening of the esophagus
fundus
uppermost domed portion of the stomach
body
central portion of the stomach
antrum
lower portion of the stomach
pylorus
portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
small intestine
20-foot canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
duodenum
first 10 to 12 inches of the small intestine
jejunum
second portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet
ileum
third portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet long, which connects with the large intestine
large intestine
canal that is approximately 5 feet long and extends from the ileum to the anus
cocum
blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
colon
next portion of the large intestine. The colon is divided into four parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, decending colon, and sigmoid colon
rectum
remaining portion of the large intestine, approximately 8 to 10 inches long, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus
anus
sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) at the end of the digestive tract
salivary glands
produce saliva, which flows into the mouth
liver
produce bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats. The liver performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism
bile ducts
passageways that carry bile: the hepatic duct is apassageway for bile from the liver, and the cystic duct carries bile from the gallbladder. They join to form the common bile duct, which conveys bile to the duodenum. Collectively, these passageways are referred to as the biliary tract
gallbladder
small, saclike structure that store bile
pancreas
produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism
peritoneum
serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
abdomen
portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
appendix
small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum (also called vermiform appendix)
an/o
anus
antr/o
antrum
cec/o
cecum
col/o
colon/o
colon (usually denoting the large intestine)
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestine (usually denoting the small intestine)
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
abdomin/o
celi/o
lapar/o
abdomen (abdominal cavity)
appendic/o
appendix
cheil/o
lip
cholangi/o
bile duct
chol/e
gall, bile
choledoch/o
common bile duct
diverticul/o
diverticulum, or blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ
gingiv/o
gum
gloss/o
lingu/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
herni/o
hernia, or protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
polyp/o
polyp, small growth
pylor/o
pylorus, pyloric sphincter
sial/o
saliva, salivary gland
steat/o
fat
uvul/o
uvula
hemi-
half
-pepsia
digestion
adhesion
abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are seperated.
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder involving gorging with food, followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse
cirrhosis
chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue
Crohn disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction
duodenal ulcer
ulcer in the duodenum
gastric ulcer
ulcer in the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease
the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus
hemochromatosis
an iron metabolisim disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue
hemorrhoid
varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external
ileus
obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
intussusception
telescoping of a segment of the intestine
irritable bowel syndrome
periodic disturbances of bowel funtion
obesity
excess body fat (not body weight)
peptic ulcer
another name for gastric or duodenal ulcer
polyp
tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane
ulcerative colitis
inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers
volvulus
twisting or kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction
anastommosis
an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments
bariatric surgery
surgical reduction of gastric capacityto treat morbid obesity
hemorrhoidectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
vagotomy
cutting of certain branches of the vangus nerve
ascites
abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
dysentery
disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine
emesis
expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth
feces
waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum
flatus
gas in digestive tract
gastric lavage
washing out of the stomach
gavage
process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
hematochezia
passage of bloody feces
melensa
black, tarry stool that contains digested blood