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157 Cards in this Set

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an animal that is dehydrated before surgery may require a ___ because ___ of the cell volume occurs after rehydration

blood/plasma tranfusion; dilution

you are monitoring a cat who is recovering from a spay procedure. unfortunately, the veterinarian suspects that this patient is hemorraging from the surgery site. which of the following procedures may be needed at this point

abdominocentesis

it is your first day of work, and you are checking on a hospitalized patient. you see the phrase "monitor for strangulation" in the medical report. strangulation refers to

loss of the intestinal blood supply with devitalization and possible intestinal perforation, which is seen in conjunction with some hernias

indications of postoperative pain include a

increased heart rate

seromas that form postoperatively can be treated with all of the following except

ablation

postoperative incision infection and cellulitis can both be treated with

warm compressess and systemic antibiotics

all of the following can contribute to wound dehiscence and evisceration except

surgical debridement

is caused by serum seeping through a bandage and into the external environment

strike-through

is the condition of an abnormally thickened portion of the articular cartilage

osteochondrosis

the classic signs of gastric dilation volvulus (GDV) include all of the following except

straining to defecate

all of the following procedures require the use of shredded paper instead of litter for several days postoperatively except

dental surgery

when a large section of intestine has become necrotic, it is necessary to perform ___ and ___

resection; anastomosis

you are sending two patients home from the hospital today. one had routine sterilization, and the other one had a large benign tumor removed from the throat. both animals will require ____ days of restricted activity

10 to 14

moe, a labrador retiever, is brought to the hospital with a thoracolumbar disk that has already ruptured, and moe is having difficulty walking. after talking with the owner, the veterinarian decides to perform ____ to alleviate compression on the spinal cord

hemilaminectomy

a surgeon removes a devialized section of intestine and then performs a

anastomosis

pyometra, metritis, and endometrial hyperplasia may be treated with a

ovariohysterectomy

the most common late postoperative complication of ____ is stricture, generally manifested as stranguira

urethrostomy

an accumulation of purulent secretions and fluid within the lining of the uterus is termed

pyometra

is the method of amputation in which the bone is cut and all or a portion of the bone is removed

ostectomy

the term that describes false pregnancy is

pseudocyesis

as a complication of celiotomy, your patient experiences ____, a temporary loss of intestinal motility

ileus

swelling and infection along tissue planes in a postoperative incision that may be red, warm and associated with elevated body temperature may be a sign of

cellulitis

extrusion or exposure of organs from the abdominal cavity is called

evisceration

as you monitor your postsurgical patient, you are aware that packed cell volume (PCV) and total protein (TP) values can drop up to ___ due to anesthesia and surgery, even if no blood loss occurs

10%

soft tissue pain typically last ___days following surgery

4 to 5

if a bandage is too tight, it can result in ___ compromise and skin ____

vascular; death

tail docking and dewclaw removal in a puppy should occur between days

3 to 5

is incision into the intestine

enterotomy

an incision into the urinary bladder to expose the lumen or interior of the bladder is a

cystotomy

is the removal of both testicles

orchidectomy

which of the following incisions could be made at the ventral midline, paracostal plane, parapreputial plane, or flank

celiotomy

before a patient is ready to be sent home after surgery, the veterinarian technician must take responsibility for educating the owner about what is needed for the animal's continued recovery. which of the following considerations can help guide the technician in educating the owner at the time of discharge

all of the above

the use of elastrator bands to perform castration of calves has been associated with the development of

tetanus

young foals who are still nursing are sometimes held off feed for ___ hours before surgery

1 to 2

a caudal epidural provides loss of sensation to the

perineal area

what bandage is used to assist with hemostasis during surgery of the limb

esmarch bandage

myositis is damage to or inflammation of

muscle

in acute laminitis in the horse, digital pulses are

bounding

you are nursing solitaire, a horse recovering from small-intestinal surgery performed yesterday. at 10pm on saturday night, you discover solitaire covered in sweat, with evidence of frequent rolling in her stall. why does a horse like solitaire, with a buildup of fluid in her stomach, experience such pain

horses cannot vomit to relieve the gastic pressure

what type of hernia is congenital and common in foals

umbilical

mesh may be used in the repair of which type of larger hernias

incisional

one of the most common surgeries performed in the horse is

castration

perineal surgery is performed in mares with

rectovaginal tears

true breech in horse is defined as ___ presentation of the foal

tail-first

when bandaging, casting, or splinting a fracture in a horse, you need to make sure that which of the following occurs

place the bandage, cast, or splint at least one joint above the injury

major fractures of long bones are best repaired with

screws and bone plates

severe angular limb deformities may be corrected by

surgery

laminitis rarely occurs in horses of less than ____ years of age

1

if a horse is severely lame in one foot only, the patient should be assessed for

subsolar abscess

a horse requires orthopedic surgery. how is the limb prepared for surgery

clip the hair and perform an aseptic surgical scrub

unless otherwise instructed, a ___ surgery pack should be set up for a cesarean section

colic

the veterinary technician must use caution when handling mares immediately after caudal epidural anesthesia because

the mare's rear legs are uncoordinated

the operation performed on some mares' vulvas to prevent air and feces from entering the vagina is known as the

caslick operation

what surgical item is designed specifically for castration

emasculators

postoperative care of the equine castration patient involves

strict stall confinement for 24 hours and then hand walking once or twice a daily for 1 to 2 weeks to promote drainage

what hernia type requires immediate examination by a veterinarian

scrotal hernia in an adult stallion

bone spavin, high and low ringbone, and osselets are terms that all apply to different forms of

arthritis

what disease is frequently treated with arthroscopy

osteochondrosis (cartilage abnormalities in young, growing horses)

the nerves blocked when performing paravertebral anesthesia are

T13, L1 and L2

the anatomic landmarks used when performing distal paravertebral anesthesia are transvere process of

L1, L2 and L4

for most orthopedic surgeries, ____ should be placed in the operating room in addition to the standard surgery supplies

radiographs of the affected limb

horses undergoing surgery lying down are particularly prone to ___ damage during the procedure

muscle

the majority of colic surgeries are performed with the horses

in the dorsal recumbent position

arthroscopic instruments to be used more than once per day are most often ___ between procedures

cold sterilized

what condition in the postoperative orthopedic patient wearing a limb bandage or cast should be brought to the attention of the veterinarian immediately

a dramatic change in the horse's use of the limb

although always important, to ensure success, ___ is generally more closely regarded in orthopedic surgery than in soft tissue surgery

asepsis

for which condition is treatment is being described? "one technique involves placement of two or three vertical mattress sutures in the lower lid to roll the lid margin out."

entropion

life-threatening upper respiratory tract obstruction can be alleviated on an emergency basis by

tracheostomy

when removing horn buds with a dehorning iron, what is one serious side effect of leaving the iron on too long

thermal meningitis

extirpation refers to removal of

all of the contents of the bony orbit

preparation of the bovine patient that will be going under general anesthesia should include the removal of food ___ hours before anesthesia

36 to 48

the majority of abdominal surgical procedures in the bovine patient may be performed via a ___ incision in the ___ patient

flank; standing

what is the required treatment for abomasal volvulus

immediate surgical intervention

septic arthritis in calves may be treated with

polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads implanted subcutaneously near the infected joints

you discover advanced infection in a cow with an infected claw. claw amputation will be performed using

IV retrograde analgesia

in cows, what are the main weight-bearing claws

front medial and hind lateral claws

the veterinarian is treating a cow with dystocia using a left-flank approach. after closure, the uterus is lavaged and replaced within the abdomen before routine closure of the laparotomy site. now, to initiate uterine involution, __ is given

oxytocin

calves dehorned after 6 months of age are at greater risk of developing

sinusitis

a mare requires the removal of a nondieseased ovary. the veterinarian determines that the best method for this is through a flank incision or via an incision in the vaginal wall. this procedure is called a

colpotomy

the patient's accumulation of ___ plaque was a sign of possible periodontitis

subgingival

what species has radicular hypsodont teeth

horses

which of the following is not a common presenting problems of horses with severe dental disease

quidding

the magnetostrictive scaler

uses a tip that moves in an elliptical pattern with energy dispersion providing vibrations on all surfaces

male horses usually have four canine teeth that

erupt at about 4 to 6 years of age

makes up the supporting structure of the teeth

periodontium

internal oral examination includes everything except

checking the ears

what does the term CUPS refer to

chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis

the folds of the upper palate are referred to as

rugae

for accurate readings, it is essential for the technician to develop skills in consistent probing forces to use between __ g of pressure

10 to 20

attrition refers to wear

from teeth contacting teeth

most dental radiology machines operate at ___ kVp

60 to 70

the basic techniques for positioning dental radiographs are

bisecting angle, parallel, and occlusal

the two types of ultrasonic scalers include

magnetostrictive and piezoelectric

which instrument can be either universal or area specific depending on the angulation of the face of the blade

curet

when sharpening hand instruments, the angle between the stone and the face should be approximately ___ degrees

110

an osteoconductive material will

act as a scaffold for new bone cells to traverse a defect

the VOHC is the veterinary

oral health council

which of the following file types is less likely to break within the canal during filing

K-files

sight hound breeds have what head type

dolichocephalic

you have just made an impression in dental stone to make a postitive image of the mouth. the complete setting time for stone is __ hours

1 to 2

squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately ___ of oral tumors in cats

70%

a patient has an oral inflammation that extends beyond the mucogingival junction. based on this fact, the veterinarian will most likely explain to the client that the animal has

stomatitis

is the facial morphology in which the upper jaw is wider than the lower jaw

anisognathism

which of the following nerve blocks has the potential to result in unkowing self-trauma to the tounge

inferior alveolar

a patient is diagnosed with ___, which is a deviation of the incisivebone, maxilla, and nasal septum laterally from the midline

wry nose

when performing a dental occlusion evaluation of a dog or cat, the shape of the skull must be evaluated. a narrow skull and long maxilla are found in ___ breeds

dolicocephalic

the ___ is an organization that consist of technicians who have completed a credentials process and passed a specialty examination

academy of veterinary dental technicians (AVDT)

using the modified triadan numbering system, what number would be assigned to the left maxillary third incisor

203

which of the following statements about the advantages and disadvantages of tooth polishing methods is not true

polishing veterinary mouths help build up enamel, which turn protects the tooth substance

deterioration in physical and mental condition, organ function, and immunity are found in

aging animals

the young adult life stage includes

7 month old to 6 years old cats

though interrelated factors cause variations, overall, for both cats and dogs, most veterinarians start monitoring a pet for health issues related to their senior years at around age ___ years

7

which of the following is a common concern in geriatric patients

neoplasia

in a cat, increased appetite with concurrent weight loss is a sign of

hyperthyroidism

tachycardia, tachypnea, and elevated temperature are all signs of

pain

management of aged horses include hoof care (trimming) every __ weeks

4

management of aged horses include having teeth floated every ___ months

6

recumbent patients should be turned every ___ hours

4 to 6

the most common short- term feeding tube is the ___ tube

nasoesophageal

aging, smaller-breed dogs are more likely to develop ___ than either larger-breed dogs or aging cats

chronic valvular disease

which of the following clinical signs is not likely to be secondary to cardiac disturbances

all of them can be secondary to heart disease, especially in the geriatric patient

which of the following is not a common recommendation for easing patient discomfort associated with degenerative joint disease

help underweight patients gain weight to improve bone density as this is the most common cause of DJD in aging cats and dogs

increased appetite, or ___, is associated with diabetes mellitus

polyphagia

in cushing disease, elevated glucocorticoid levels inhibit ___ function and diminish their ability to adequately protect against infection, primarily of the skin and urinary tract

neutrophil

part of your responsibilities in animal hospice care is to prevent decubital ulcers by encouraging each animal to stand and walk at least every __ hours

4 to 6

a patient being given intravenous fluids exhibits swollen front limbs; you speculate that the fluids are being administered too far forward in the ___ area, allowing the fluid to settle ventrally into the legs

scruff

a client caring for a geriatric pet at home asks for guidance in performing bladder expression. you direct the client to place one hand on each side of the patient's abdomen, move the hands caudally to locate the bladder, and then

apply gentle pressure directed toward the rear of the patient

the most permanent type of feeding tube is the ___ tube

gastrostomy

a large geriatric dog still has good quality of life but has little to no function of his hind limbs. his owner would like to give him as much mobility as possible, so you suggest a

cart

the veterinarian has just diagnosed a geriatric appaloosa with equine recurrent uveitis, complicated by the corneal ulcer. her primary treatment of choice for this patient might well be

topical antimicroial plus atropine

you advise a client to regularly clip his older horse because geriatric horses with an overlong hair coat

experience all of the above

which of the following is characteristic of the hair of a horse who is exhibiting hirsutism

long and wavy

which of the following is not a chronic problem in aging horses

absence of a heave line

which of the following does not fit with this statement: " companion animals have taken on larger roles in people's support systems because"

it is harder to give up an animal to humane societies today

what percent of our companion animals live indoor

80

the number of people in the over the 60 year age group has increased to greater than ___ of the population

16%

of the greater than 72 million families that own one pet, about ___ of the owners describe their pets as family members

one-third

as of 2010, ___ of households in the united states owned at least one pet

72%

percent of pet owners classify their attachment to their pets as strong

fifty

the levels of attachment vary for each pet owner. these relationships may be perceived as stronger when which of the following aspects is present

owners believe they have rescued the animal from certain death

the loss of a pet for many owners is made worse by which of the following

the pet is grieved soley by the owner

the most important factor in euthanasia of large animals is

safety

the __ stage of grief is a normal defense mechanism that buffers humans from unbearable reality

denial

seeking to replace a pet that has died without grieving at all is a form of

bargaining

may be exhibited in the form of guilt

anger

anger is difficult for a grieving owner to work through, but ___ may be the hardest thing for the client to relinquish

guilt

if a client experiences ___ in response to intense grief, it can prevent them from functioning normally

depression

if severe depression is suspected in a grieving client, it is best for the veterinary professional to refer the client to

a counselor or hotline

the most common reason a pet owner decides to have a pet euthanized is

suffering of the animal

the number of clients who change veterinarians after a pet has died is about

40%

the number one reason a client may change veterinarians after the euthanasia of their pet is

the lack of care and concern on the part of the veterinarian and staff

the best way to discuss euthanasia with a client is to use terms such as

painless death

the most important aspect of the euthanasia is

communication

when the client will be present for the euthanasia, it is best to place a intravenous catheter. the best placement would be in the

back leg

when using an intaperitoneal injection of euthanasia solution, death may take as long as __ minutes to occur

15

the best way to help hospital staff deal with the stress of euthanasia is

a discussion with colleagues

in the united states, the ___ is the organization that issues and monitors the use of barbiturates in medical settings

Drug enforcement agency (DEA)