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38 Cards in this Set

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Periderm:lower limb of human embryo with the best basal cuboidal and surface flattened peridermalcells in the region of dorsal surface in foot, - some peridermalcells undergo already hypertrophy due to the apoptotic changes. Note alsoprominent lymphatic capillaries in the subepidermalconnective tissue.

Developmentofskinanditsderivates: sagittal section of rat head with prominent hairfollicles (primordia of the moustache). Epiderm shows stratum intermedium. Additionally, head demonstrates the intramembranous ossification in the skull bones, nasal conches with developing mucosal membrane and seromucous glands, desmocranium and chondrocranium, tongue, lamina dentis. nl.eu.c

ZOOM version

Naildevelopment: note the thumb longitudinal section of the palm, where on itsdistal part there is possible to find nail matrix, nail bed and acidophilicthin, already keratinized nail lamina that doesn’t reach the fingertip.dkgcjbnfdaneoojd

Development of lower part in face: notethe part of in direct (intramembranous way) ossifying bone trabecule withosteoblasts and Mesenchyme. Oral epithelium consists of prominent, polymorphouscells and indistinct flattened surface cell layer. Lamina dentis withpermanent tooth primordia is placed directly beneath the oral epithelium. Alsomilk tooth primordium in cap stage is present here and consists of tooth enamelorgan (with partially differentiated internal, syncytio- and external epithelium) and toothmesenchymal papilla. Finally, the part of lower lip with skin type epithelium,developing hair follicles, mucosal part and differentiating m. orbicularis oris isseen. Some slides demonstrate also differentiation of minor salivary glands ofthe lip.

note the part of in direct(intramembranous way) ossifying bone trabecule withosteoblasts and MesenchymeBone from intramembranous ossification with trabecuale and osteoblastsAttention!This is notMeckels cartilage!Meckels cartilage is a structure helping bone formation!

Tooth development

2nd version tooth

Development of tongue and main salivaryglands in embryonic weeks 6/7: dorsal surface of tongue without papillae isseen. There is detectable the development of sublingual gland just beneath thetongue, but in deeper region apoptotic Meckel cartilage takes place. Theintramembranous ossification goes along the degenerative cartilagefragments. Tooth enamel organ (cap stage) and mesenchymal papilla arelocated just beneath the oral epithelium. The lower lip demonstrates skinpart with developing hair follicles, differentiation of m. orbicularis oris andmucosal part.eed/his.d(

Tongue 2nd slide

Development of tongue and main salivary glandsin embryonic weeks 11/12: dorsal surface of tongue is densely covered byprimordia of papillae; at the basis of organ developing minor salivary glandsare seen, but more prominent sublingual gland (in comparison to the previousslide) accompanied by nerve bundles occupies the sublingual region (gland showsthe developing main excretory duct).

Development of tongue and main salivaryglands in embryonic weeks 11/12: dorsal surface of tongue is denselycovered by primordia of papillae; at the basis of organ developing minorsalivary glands are seen, but more prominent sublingual gland (in comparison tothe previous slide) accompanied by nerve bundles occupies the sublingual region(gland shows the developing main excretory duct).

Development of adrenal gland: slidecontains adrenal gland and metanephros. There is distinct prominent adrenalfetal cortex and also medulla with some fine developing blood capillaries isseen into the middle of primordia. Metanephros demonstrates the well developed renalpelvis, differentiation of nephrons. Mesenchyme occupies space between thekidney and adrenal gland and there appeared primary lymphatic follicle into thesome slides. 0","0

Desmocranium

Slidecanbeused for:lungdevelopment,spinal chorddevelopment,skindevelopment.Contains(insideout): heart,lungs,vertebrae,ribs,sternum,spinal chord,striatedmuscle,skin,hairfollicles

2nd version thoracic

Longitudinalsection of neural tube: slide is part of obliquely done sagittal human embryosection with fragment of longitudinal nerve tube that demonstrates narrow spaceof forthcoming central canal, ventricular zone, mantle zone and marginal zone.Additionally, the epidermis with intermedial layer and subepidermalconnective tissue development also are detectable behind the nerve tube (not inthis slide). ": false, "sts_observed": 1480869332.974106 }, "AlwEO

Development of spinal cord in embryonicweeks 11/12: slide consists of bended rib fragment showing the beginning ofendochondral ossification (vacuolization of hyaline cartilage, development ofcartilage degeneration zone and/or primary ossification centers, embryonicconnective tissue, intercostal muscles with transversal section of immatureskeletal striated muscle fibers. The spinal cord is surrounded by fragments ofhyaline cartilage where is possible to find remnant of chorda dorsalissometimes. Spinal cord shows central canal lined by already differentiated ependyma orby ventricular zone. After the incompletely differentiated mantle zone (in wayof letter H) follows and marginal zone. Spinal cord is enrolled bydifferentiating connective tissue of pia mater.B

Development of spinal ganglia inembryonic weeks 6/7: spinal ganglia are seen together with spinal cord. Thelast one is in earlier developmental stage than the spinal cord in previousslide. This is indicated by incompletely differentiated central canal (slightlyoblique), but there are well detectable ventricular, mantle and marginal zones.Spinal ganglion differs from spinal cord and look like a conglomerate of gangliocytes withtwo outcomingroots – towards the spinal cord and in opposite direction ( mostly we can onlysee one root or none at all)lO9

Development of brain: represented insagittal section of human head during the 11/12 embryonic week. Indicator forthe developing face – eye primordia with pigment retina, neural retina, lens,cornea, primordia of upper and lower eyelids. ! Orbital bone showsvacuolization, above the developing eye desmocranium withalready differentiated bone fragments is seen, region beneath the eye primordiais occupied by chodrocranium(that consists of hyaline cartilage). Also ear cartilaginous capsule withdeveloping semicircular canals and one of ganglionic core ganglia (more likely,trigeminal one) are seen in this slide. The same brain primordia containsmedulla oblongata with the IV ventricle and the behind, upwarded thelamina quadrigemina andthalamus are placed. Even more upwarded are the III ventricle with welldeveloped plexus choroideus andmore frontally - one of brain nuclei (more likely, nucleus caudatus)showing the typical neuroblastmigration is placed. Finally, Neocortex with 3-4 differentiated layers isseen. ! Some brain serial slides contain differentiating cerebellum posteriorlywith still unclear layers of cortex

Cerebllum

Liver development: is seen in sagittal ortransversal section of human embryo. Liver practically occupies the wholeabdominal cavity and shows the differentiating hepatocytes and haemopoieticislands with even nucleated erythroblasts. Also visceral peritoneum is seen inthis slide ( not in this section!!!)

Liver development: is seen in sagittal ortransversal section of human embryo. Liver practically occupies the wholeabdominal cavity and shows the differentiating hepatocytes and haemopoieticislands with even nucleated erythroblasts. Also visceral peritoneum is seen inthis slide.

Slidecanbeusedfor:liverdevelopment,spinal chorddevelopment,lungdevelopment,skindevelopmentContains (inside out): liver,lungs,diaphragma, oesophagus, dorsalaorta,vertebra,ribs,sternum,spinal chord,striatedmuscle,skinwithhairfollicles

Development of small intestine: slide ofsmall intestine folds in 8/9 embryonic weeks old human embryo. Slide showssituation after just realized recanalization (indicated by some fine fragmentsof epithelium into the gut lumen). However, the same epithelium is notcompletely differentiated and demonstrates only enterocytes and glandulocytes.Crypts are not detectable yet, tunica mucosa didn’t separated from the tunicasubmucosa, but muscularis externashows thin circular and longitudinal layer of smooth muscles. Tunica serosaends the external part of small intestine.

Physiological hernationof midgut(D): the sagittal section of 8/9 weeks old human embryo. Beside the hernationprocess demonstrate head development (tongue, tooth primordia, sagittal sectionof brain, development of spinal cord and spinal ganglia, mediastinum with pseudoglandularstage of lungs, heart transversal section in the region of apex, liverdevelopment, duodenum, developing pancreas, and metanephroswith adrenal gland. Not seen in this slide!!! Note the midgut fold into the intraumbilical cordcoelom. Intestine loop here is filled by epithelium, while in the blood vesselsof umbilical cord endothelium is seen.

Development of lungs: human or sheep lungfragments in pseudoglandulardevelopmental stage when lungs remind the structure similar to the glandulartissue and also differentiating main blood vessels. Presence of elongatedcanaliculi indicates the upper of lower segments of the organ that developfaster and may represent already the canalicular stage.

2nd version of lung

Development of pancreas: aborted humanembryo sagittal section with partially defected anterior abdominal wall, butwell seen heart and gut folds. Mesothelium of duodenum contains the pancreas(without excretory ducts), but the stomach crossection demonstrates the thickest wall.

Development of pancreas: aborted humanembryo sagittal section with partially defected anterior abdominal wall, butwell seen heart and gut folds. Mesothelium of duodenum contains the pancreas(without excretory ducts), but the stomach crossection demonstrates the thickest wall.

Development of eye: slide of 11/12 weeksold human embryo: main indicator – lens with long lens fibers and anteriorcuboidal epithelium. Partly degenerative membrana pupillaris is placed before the lens and separatesthe anterior and posterior eye chamber. Cornea and conjunctive sac are locatedmost anteriorly. The eyelid space is filled by proliferating epithelium.Incompletely differentiated corpus ciliare develops in lateral sides of lens, buttwo parts of retina – neural and pigment retina start from the corpus ciliareposteriorly. The choroid layer is indistinct. However, eyeball muscles alreadyappear.

Development of eye: slide of 11/12 weeksold human embryo: main indicator – lens with long lens fibers and anteriorcuboidal epithelium. Partly degenerative membrana pupillaris is placed before the lens and separatesthe anterior and posterior eye chamber. Cornea and conjunctive sac are locatedmost anteriorly. The eyelid space is filled by proliferating epithelium.Incompletely differentiated corpus ciliare develops in lateral sides of lens, buttwo parts of retina – neural and pigment retina start from the corpus ciliareposteriorly. The choroid layer is indistinct. However, eyeball muscles alreadyappear. nGSx[k

Development of semicircular canals(sagittal section of dog embryo): ! check all serial sections because theycontain slightly different information. Note the prominent tongue withdifferentiating skeletal striated muscles and surface papillae. Upper jawdemonstrates late tooth developmental stage (please, repeat the localization ofenamel, dentin, odontoblasts, pulp from the histology), skull bones show redbone marrow with separate megakaryocytes. Find also nasal cavity lined bymucosa with developing seromucousglands, and conches. Eyeball is enrolled by eyeball muscles and lacrimalglands, but the same eyeball primordia contain lens, pigment- and neuralretina, and in some slides done „behind” the retina – also optical nervesurrounded by pia mater is seen. Lower jaw contains lamina dentis,fragments of Meckel cartilage and main salivary glands: sublingual andsubmandibular surrounded by conglomerates of brown adipose tissue. The lastones are detectable around many main head structures. There is also sagittalsection of Cortiorgan, please, repeat from histology the structure of Cortiorgan) and ganglion spinale.Prominent nerve trunks and temporomandibular joint with articular cartilage areseen in this slide.

Drawing dog head

The Triad

Head labelled

Sagittal section of rat embryo: head partshows desmo- andchondrocranium,neocortex, plexus choroideus,also developing eye and ear cartilaginous capsule with semicircular canals.From main salivary glands only sublingual gland is seen in all slides,sometimes submandibular gland is present, but never parotid gland. Descendingthyroid gland reach the lower part of neck. Mediastinum demonstrates thymus inits upper part, tracheal transversal section, lungs in pseudoglandularstage and transversal section of heart via apex. Liver with hemopoieticislands occupies subdiaphragmalregion, but pancreas is located beneath the liver. Also mesentherium withintestine folds are seen in abdominal cavity. Pelvis posterior part contains metanephros andadrenal gland, but some serial sections show also mesonephros andgonads. ! Recanalization is observed in some intestine loops (this depends onthe age of embryo). Also developing vertebral column, spinal ganglia and !!!prominent deposits of brown adipose tissue are seen in the slide. Transversal sections of ribs and part of paws are placed anteriorly from thebody. Note also skin with intermediate layer and subepidermalconnective tissue. lt\":t=$