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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Passage of molecules and ions through the gut wall into the capillaries or lacteals

Active site

The specific three dimensional site on an enzyme molecule with which the substrate binds by weak chemical bonds

Active transport

The movement of molecules or ions across a membrane against the concentration gradient using energy from the hydrolysis of ATP


Adenine triphosphate- a nucleotide in all living cells ; its hydrolysis makes energy available and formed when chemical reactions release energy


Attraction between water molecules and

hydrophilic molecules in the wall of the xylem.

Analogous structures

Structures having the same function but a different origin and development e.g no recent command ancestor in species


Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule correlated with the specific amino acid carried by that tRNA

Apoplast pathway

Pathway of water running through non-living spaces between cells and in cell walls outside the cell membrane

Atrio-ventricular node AVN

The only conducting area of tissue in the wall of the heart between the atria and the ventricles through which a wave of electrical excitation is passed from the atria to the conducting tissue in the walls of the ventricles.


An organism that makes complex organic molecules out of raw inorganic molecules (CO2,H2O) via photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Examples of this are plants, some bacteria and some protoctista


A measure of the number of different species and the number of organisms per species in a specific area


An association of a biomolecule such as an enzyme with a transducer which provides an electrical signal in response to a chemical signal

Used to measure the concentrations of sugars

Or a specific protein

BOHR effect

The reduction of affinity with oxygen at higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide which moves the oxygen dissociation curve to the right


The last upper pre-molar and first lower molar teeth of a carnivore which have shearing action when the jaw closes


Specialised region of a chromosome where two chromatids join and to which the microtubules of the spindle attach prior to cell division


One of the two identical copies of a chromosome joined at the centromere prior to cell division


A long thin strand of DNA found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell


Group of three bases on mRNA which code for the specific amino acid or punctuation signal

Competitive inhibitor

A molecule that binds to the active site of an enzyme as it's shape resembles that of the substrate preventing the substrate from binding and consequently slowing the rate of reaction

Convergent evolution

The development of similar features in unrelated organisms over time related to natural selection of similar features in a comman environment