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77 Cards in this Set

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Is the culture shock the sense of confusion when a student encounters a new environment with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned?




True or False

True

Peer pressure is defined as:

A) A phenomenon that greatly influences age-mates to make poor decisions
B) A phenomenon that greatly influences age-mates to make positive decisions
C) A phenomenon whereby age-mates encourage some behaviors and discourage others
D) None of the above

C) A phenomenon whereby age-mates encourage some behaviors and discourage others

A gang is defined as:




A) A cohesive group of people who all carry weapons and are territorial
B) An individual who is territorial, wears hot pink and likes to start feuds


C) A group of all one ethnicity who terrorize others in society for the fun of it


D) A cohesive social group characterized by initiation rites, distinctive colors and symbols, territorial orientation, and feuds with rival groups

D) A cohesive social group characterized by initiation rites, distinctive colors and symbols, territorial orientation, and feuds with rival groups

Equilibrium the state of being able to address new events with existing schemes.




True or False

True

Which is not a consequence that serves as an effective punishment?




A) Logical consequences


B) Time-out


C) A cookie


D) Response cost

C) A cookie

Which best defines a response (R)?




A) A specific behavior that an individual exhibits


B) A specific object or event that influences a learner’s behavior


C) A muscular movement that makes you jump


D) An answer on a test

A) A specific behavior that an individual exhibits

Scaffolding is the term Vygotsky introduced that means adults or more competent individuals provide guidance that enables students to perform tasks WITHIN their zone of proximal development.

True or False

True

__________________ is changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory.




A) Encoding


B) Retrieval


C) Sensory Register


D) Attention

A) Encoding

When creating a culturally inclusive classroom environment, one must:




A) Come to grips with your own cultural lens and biases
B) Educate yourself about your students’ cultural backgrounds


C) Be sensitive to the culture shock that recent immigrants may be experiencing


D) All of the above

D) All of the above

How would you explain declarative knowledge




A) Knowledge of how things are done


B) Knowledge that indirectly affects our actions and beliefs


C) Knowledge of how things are, were, or will be


D) Knowledge that is known and used for action

C) Knowledge of how things are, were, or will be

Which is believed to be the best, most well-rounded parenting style




A) Authoritarian


B) Permissive
C) Uninvolved/Neglectful
D) Authoritative

D) Authoritative

In what developmental cycle does a child experience extinction when a non-reinforced behavior disappears?




A) Formal Operations
B) Operant Operations
C) Classical Conditioning


D) Concrete Operations

B) Operant Operations

The Parenting style that teachers should adopt that is most conclusive to happy, self-confident, independent children, is




A) Authoritative
B) Authoritarian
C) Permissive
D) Neglectful

B) Authoritarian

Positive transfer occurs when prior knowledge hinders a person’s learning or performance at a later time, and a negative transfer occurs when prior knowledge helps that person learn in another situation.




True or False

True

Different stimuli are reinforcing for different individuals.




True or False

True

People first language is:




A) Making clear who you are talking to before you begin talking
B) Beginning each statement with something that will grab people’s attention
C) Speaking in a way that makes focuses their attention on a particular point that you will be discussing based on importance
D) Using language that mentions a persons name before their disability

D) Using language that mentions a persons name before their disability

Students from diverse cultural backgrounds may sometimes come to school with different schemas and scripts and so may interpret the same classroom materials or activities differently.

True or False

True

Three factors that definitely influence the degree to which students form positive or negative self-concepts include:

A) Present behaviors, their own aspirations for the future, and what their parents achieved
B) Prior behaviors & performance, behaviors of others toward them, and the expectation that others hold for their future.
C) Prior behaviors, present behaviors, and socioeconomic status

B) Prior behaviors & performance, behaviors of others toward them, and the expectation

A basic assumption of the social cognitive theory is that people can learn by observing others.




True or False

True

Incentive is a future consequence of behavior that is:




A) Guaranteed
B) Hoped for
C) Decreased
D) Increased

B) Hoped for

A live model is a currently living individual whose behavior is not observed in person.




True or False

False

Classical conditioning was first described by:




A) Sigmund Freud


B) Alfred Adler


C) Ian Pavlov


D) B.F. Skinner

C) Ian Pavlov

In classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response becomes the conditioned response.




True or False

True

What is it called when a person is able to forego small, immediate reinforcers in order to obtain larger ones later on?




A) Intrinsic reinforcement


B) Delay of gratification


C) Extrinsic reinforcement


D) Response cost

B) Delay of gratification

According to Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, how many types of intelligences are there




A) 8


B) 1


C) 5


D) 12

A) 8

Memory is the ability to save something that has been previously learned?

True or False

True

What does the term meta-cognition literally mean?




A) Thinking about sleep


B) A strategy used to change the format of new information


C) Thinking about thinking


D) All of the above

C) Thinking about thinking

Memory aid or trick designs to help students learn and remember one or more specific pieces of information is called?




A) theory of mind


B) socialization


C) mnemonic


D) memory

C) mnemonic

Ways in which an individual behaves and thinks in a wide range of circumstances is called encoding.




True or False

False

Children fighting like WWE wrestlers is an example of pro-social behavior




True or False

False

If an individual has the ability to notice subtle aspects of other people's behavior, you would assume they have a(n) ________ intelligence.




A) Naturalist


B) Interpersonal


C) Intrapersonal
D) Spatial

B) Interpersonal

Specific transfer is defined as




A) Phenomenon in which something learned at one time facilitates learning or performance at a later time


B) Phenomenon in which something learned at one time interferes with learning or performance at a later time


C) Instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task are different in content
D) Instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task overlap in content

D) Instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task overlap in content

Jack's parents light a fire in the fireplace one night. A spark fly’s out and lands on Jack's arm leaving an unpleasant burn. He cry’s because the burn hurts. A few nights later Jack's parents light a fire in the fireplace, and Jack starts to cry. Identify the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR).




A) UCS= fire in the fireplace UCR= crying CS= unpleasant burn CR= crying


B) UCS= Jack's parents UCR= fire in the fireplace CS= crying CR= unpleasant burn


C) UCS= unpleasant burn UCR= crying CS= fire in the fireplace CR= crying


D) UCS= spark UCR= unpleasant burn CS= Jack's parents CR= crying

C) UCS= unpleasant burn UCR= crying CS= fire in the fireplace CR= crying

What refers to a learner’s ability to “save” things they have learned?




A) Storage
B) Memory
C) Retrieval
D) Experience

B) Memory

Different stimuli are reinforcing for different individuals.




True or False

True

________________ is when a child modifies an existing scheme to account for the new object or event or form an entirely new scheme to deal with it.




A) Accommodation


B) Assimilation
C) Concrete
D) Formal

A) Accommodation

Which is NOT a personality trait in the “Big Five”?

A) Openness
B) Extraversion


C) Neuroticism
D) Attachment

D) Attachment

Organization does not involve making connections among various pieces of new information be forming categories?




True or False

False

The following is an example of operant conditioning:




You check the coin return slot on a pay telephone and find a quarter. You find yourself checking other telephones over the next few days.

True or False

True

An ill-defined problem can be described as 4x4 is 16.




True or False

False

One’s knowledge base is defined as:

A) Existing knowledge about specific topics.
B) Existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general.
C) Existing knowledge about the world in general.

B) Existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general.

In Asperger's syndrome, people usually have below intelligence.

True or False

False

Music Intelligence would include which of the following?

A) Dancing, Performing pantomime, playing basketball


B) Making persuasive arguments, writing poetry


C) Playing musical Instrument, composing musical work, identifying music
D) None of the above

C) Playing musical Instrument, composing musical work, identifying music

The concept of culture encompasses the behaviors and belief systems that characterize a long standing social group.




True or False

True

Which of the following words would describe feeling of sorrow for another person’s distress, accompanied by concern for the person’s well-being?




A. Guilt


B. Sympathy


C. Shame


D. Empathy


E. None of the above

B. Sympathy

Which stage is not a part of Erikson’s eight stages of Psychosocial Development?




A) Trust Vs. Mistrust


B) Preoperational Vs. Sensorimotor


C) Intimacy Vs. Isolation


D) Industry Vs. Inferiority

B) Preoperational Vs. Sensorimotor

Which statement demonstrates an ill-defined problem?




A) In 2006 the tiger population was estimated to be around 5,000 tigers in Africa, by 2010 it decreased by 10%, how many tigers were there in 2010
B) In May of 2014, the rainforest provided homes for many species of animals and plants, and they help reduce the rapid increase in carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere. Yet each day, tens of thousands acres of tropical rainforest disappear, largely as a result of farmers’ efforts to create new farmlands by slashing and burning existing vegetation. What steps might be taken to curtail this alarming rate of deforestation?

B) This is an ill-defined problem

The support mechanism that helps learners successfully perform a challenging task within the learner’s zone of proximal development is known as:


A) Apprenticeship


B) Scaffolding


C) Guided Participation


D) Cognitive Apprenticeship

B) Scaffolding

What parenting style should teacher’s adopt that results in a happy, independent, and self-confident kid?




A) Authoritative


B) Permissive


C) Authoritarian


D) Benevolent

A) Authoritative

A problem in which the goal is clearly stated, all the information needed to solve the problem in present and only one correct answer exists is known as a well-defined problem.



True or False

True

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of students who are at risk of dropping out?




A) A history of academic failure.


B) Emotional and behavioral problems.


C) Lack of psychological attachment to school.


D) Dependent on school teams/clubs/activities.





D) Dependent on school teams/clubs/activities.

Working memory is the component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time, while long-term memory is the component of memory that holds and actively thinks about/processes a limited amount of information for a short time.




True or False

False

Teachers have the ability to enhance students’ self-efficacy by giving them reasons to believe they can master school subject matter. Which of the following examples would best promote self-efficacy with students who have special educational needs?




A) Promote acceptance as a valuable skill. If a student continues to fail challenging tasks, let them know that failure is inevitable and allow them to move on and “skip” certain tasks that they cannot complete.
B) Always let students know that it’s okay to depend on others to help them in completing tasks. It is important for students to learn skills such as dependence.
C) Teach students self-regulation strategies. These types of strategies can include goal setting and planning, self-monitoring, or self-reinforcement.
D) Only give praise to students who excel at all tasks. Positive feedback should only be given when there is no negative feedback to give. All students benefit from this type of criticism.

C) Teach students self-regulation strategies. These types of strategies can include goal setting and planning, self-monitoring, or self-reinforcement.

What was VyGotsky's primary focus?

A) The effect of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation had on a child’s cognition
B) The role that "Hands on Experience" played in a young child’s Cognitive Development
C) The role of children’s social and cultural environments played in overall Cognitive Growth.

C) The role of children’s social and cultural environments played in overall Cognitive Growth.

Overt strategy is a learning strategy that is strictly mental, therefore it CANNOT be observed.




True or False

False

_________ is a parenting Style Characterized by rigid rules and expectations for behavior that children are asked to obey without question.




Authoritarian or Authoritative

Authoritarian

What are the Kohlberg’s three levels of Moral Reasoning?


A) Preconventional morality, conventional morality, Postconventional morality


B) Gender difference, Aggression, behavior


C) Conventional morality, physical morality, social morality

A) Preconventional morality, conventional morality, Postconventional morality

Kolhberg has six stages within the three levels of Moral reasoning.




True or False

True

Being blind is a counted as a special need.




True or False

True

Better nutrition, smaller family sizes, and increased access to television, are all factors that created the trend of increased performances on intelligence tests.




True or False

True

Which of the following is NOT a basic assumption of the social cognitive theory




A) Learning by observation


B) Cognitive processes in motivation
C) Increasing self-regulation with age


D) Encouraging students to make valuable choices

D) Encouraging students to make valuable choices

Parents who are overly permissive raise children who are mentally and emotionally mature, do well in school, are independent, and maintain stable relationships.




True or False

False

The three forms of meaningful learning mentioned in the book are knowledge base, mnemonics, and visual imagery.




True or False

False

When researchers find achievement differences among students from different ethnic groups, the differences in the students’ ______________ seems largely to blame and NOT their ____________.




A) Cultural differences, socioeconomic status


B) Socioeconomic status, cultural differences


C) Cultural differences, memory


D) Socioeconomic status, memory

B) Socioeconomic status, cultural differences

The ultimate purpose of administering punishment is to communicate that the limits of acceptable behavior have been exceeded, not to exact revenge and retaliation.



True or False

True

How many stages of cognitive development were presented by Jean Piaget?




A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5

C) 4

The term object permanence is used to describe a child's ability to know that objects continue to exist even though they can no longer be seen or heard.




True or False

True

The three forms of meaningful learning mentioned in the book are knowledge base, mnemonics, and visual imagery.




True or False

False

A(n) ______________________ is a stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning.



A) Unconditioned response
B) Conditioned response


C) Unconditioned stimulus


D) Conditioned stimulus

C) Unconditioned stimulus

Which of the following is NOT one of the 3 characteristics of an effective model?




A) They’re competent at the behavior or skill in question


B) They must be easily distracted


C) They typically have prestige and power


D) They exhibit behaviors relevant to learner’s own circumstances

B) They must be easily distracted

Elaboration is the cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.




True or False

True

Which of the following is NOT part of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences




A) Interpersonal


B) Learning by observation


C) Bodily-kinesthetic


D) Visual-spatial

B) Learning by observation

What are the four stages of Piaget’s Cognitive Development—in the right order?




A) Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations


B) Sensorimotor, preoperational, post operational, formal operations


C) Preoperational, concrete operations, post operational, formal operations


D) Preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations

A) Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations

Inclusion is the practice of educating all students, including those with severe and multiple learning disabilities, in neighborhood schools and general education classrooms.




True or False

True

The consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal of a stimulus is:

A) Extrinsic reinforcer


B) Positive reinforcement


C) Negative reinforcement


D) Intrinsic reinforcer

C) Negative reinforcement

When an infant is 7 months old, they are a “baby of the world,” but by 11 months old they are listening through a filter and are culture bound.




True or False

True

The three forms of meaningful learning mentioned in the book are knowledge base, mnemonics, and visual imagery.




True or False

False