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41 Cards in this Set

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Orderly, adaptive, gradual, changes that occur in humans between conception and death and remain for a long period of time, temporary change cause by illness is not a development, development happens at different rates,

Physical development

Changes in the body that take place as one grows

Social development

Changes in the way one relates to others

Personal development

Changes in an individuals personality

Cognitive development

Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex, thinking, decision making


Changes that occur naturally and spontaneously and that are genetically programmed, unaffected by environment

Nature vs nurture

Nature- heredity, genes, maturation, biological, cells, disease

Nurture- education, parenting, culture, social policies, neighbourhoods, historical events


Joint actions of individual biology and environment, shape and influence one another

Sensitive period

Times when a person is ready or responsive to certain experiences, early experiences that have adverse impacts have long term consequences


Specialized nerve cells that transmit information in the brain and nervous system


Production of new neurons, happens rapidly, unused neurons are pruned


Synapses are overproduced in developmental stages awaiting/expecting stimulus, if stimulus occurs development happens


Forming synaptic connections based on experiences, new synapses formed in response to activity, involved in mastering unfamiliar pronunciation and developing an ear for music

Cortical hypoarousal

Diminished electrical activity in the brain ex orphans with little stimulus of care

Glial cells

White matter between neurons, outnumber neurons, fight infections, control blood flow and neurons communication, provide myelin coating on axons


Influences thinking and learning helps transmit messages faster

Cerebral cortex

Outer covering, largest part of brain, many folds to provide a large surface area in a small space, problem solving and language occurs here,susceptible to environmental influences, controls physical motor movements, complex vision and hearing, higher processing, plays a role in emotion, judgment and language


Specialization of hemispheres, left is language processing, right is spatial and visual information and emotions, work together to perform complex activities


Adaptability, flexibility, less in children than adults

Adolescent brain development

Limbus system develops first, involved with emotion and risk seeking behaviour, prefrontal lobe develops later, involved in judgment and decision making, adolescents are inclined to seek thrills without being able to fully understand consequences

Internal clock

Before puberty clock is set to fall asleep around 8/9, during puberty this is delayed, teens needs 9 hours of sleep, most get less, sleep deprivation causes difficulty concentrating and learning, mood swings and behaviour worsen, parents argue school should begin later

Jean Piaget

Fascinated with the reasons children gave the wrong answers and studies the thinking behind these answers, came up with the theory of cognitive development, believed education should help children learn how to learn


Building blocks of thinking, systems of action/thought that allow us to mentally think about the world, people adapt to their environment as they organize schemes

Theory of cognitive development

How humans acquire and use knowledge

Influences on development: maturation, activity, social experiences, equilibrium

Basic instincts: organization of thoughts/behaviours and adaptation (adjusting to environment through assimilation, looking at schemes to understand information and accommodation, changing schemes to understand new information)

Private speech

Vygotsky term, this talk helps children self-regulate, plan, monitor and guide thinking and problem solving, private speech peaks at 9 then becomes thoughts, used more when confused

Zone of proximal development

area where child cannot solve a problem alone but can be successful under adult guidance

Piaget- said children have to be ready to learn

Vygotsky- believed learning was an active process that didn't wait for readiness

Vygotsky Limitations

Overemphasized the role of social interaction, general ideas because he died before expansion, no detailed applications of theories, all are created by others

Problem of the match

Hunt, students must be neither bored by work that is too simple nor left behind by something they can't understand

Active learning

Piaget believed individuals construct their own understanding, each stage requires incorporating previous schemes, involves manipulation of objects and ideas and communicating with teachers and peers and receiving feedback


Vygotsky, Support for learning through clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking problem down, providing examples to grow the student as an independent learner

Assisted learning

Requires scaffolding, first learn what student needs, then give information, prompts and encouragement slowly allowing student to do more on their own, involves adapting materials, demonstrating, giving feedback

P&V agree

1. Cognitive development requires physical and social stimulus

2. Developing thinking requires children and mentally, physically and linguistically active, they must experiment and can benefit from guidance

3. "Problem of the match

4. Challenge with support keeps them engaged and not fearful

5. "Magic middle" learning without frustration or boredom

Stages of Cognitive Development (Piaget)

Sensorimotor- 0-2, sensory/motor learning, imitation, remembers events, object permanence

Preoperational- talking-7, language develops, uses symbols for representation, thinks through steps logically

Concrete operational- gr 1-adolescence, understands conversation, organizes things into categories, reverses thinking, understands part, present and future

Formal operational- adolescent-adult, thinks hypothetically, solves problems abstractly, considers multiple perspectives, considered with social issues, identity and justice

Neo-piagetian Theories

Recent theories that integrate findings about attention, memory and learning strategy with Piagets insights about children thinking and understanding

Limitations of Piagets theory

Lack of consistency in children's thinking, processes are more continuous than they seem when observed moment to moment, insisted children could not be taught operations of future stages they had to be developed, teachers can in fact enhance development, overlooks effects of cultural and social groups

Lev Vygotsky

Sociocultural theory, believed human activities must be understood in their cultural settings, most concerned with instructed learning

Sociocultural theory

Emphasizes the role of development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society, children learn through interaction


Construction through people interacting and negotiating verbally to create an understanding or solve a problem, final product shaped by all participants, process reinternalizes by the child and shapes their cognitive development

Vygotsky- suggested children's cognitive development is fostered by interactions with more advanced people

Piaget- suggested the most helpful interactions were between peers on equal basis who could change each other's thinking

Cultural tools

Vygotsky believed played a role in cognitive development, pens, rulers, phones, computers, calendars, systems passed from adults to children and child to child through interaction and teaching

Collective monologue

Piagets term for a form of speech in which children in a group talk but don't interact or communicate

Egocentric speech

Piagets term for self directed talk, an indication that children can't see the world through the eyes of others, they speak about what matters to them, declines with age