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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Affective Domain

Behaviors that relate to the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values: receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing.

Authentic Behaviors

The types of performances required in the real world.

Behavioral Objective

A written statement that identifies specific classroom strategies to achieve desired goals and expresses these strategies in a format that allows their effects on learners to be measured.

Cognitive Domain

Behaviors that relate to the development of intellectual abilities and skills: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Criterion Level

The degree of performance required to achieve a learning objective.

Declarative Knowledge

Facts, concepts, rules, and generalizations pertaining to a specific area or topic; intended to be spoken or written.


Derived from standards to more specifically identify what must be accomplished and who must do what for standards to be met.

Learning Activities

The means of achieving learning outcomes.

Learning Conditions

The specific conditions under which learning will occur.

Learning Outcome

An observable and measurable behavior; the end product of an instructional lesson or unit.

Metacognitive Knowledge

Thinking about one's thinking to become aware of one's level of knowledge.

Performance Assessments

Learners show what they know by using complex cognitive skills to perform authentic, real-world tasks; tests that measure a skill or behavior directly, as they are used in the world outside the classroom.

Procedural Knowledge

Action sequences or procedures used in a problem-solving or decision-making task; learning action sequences or procedures to follow; knowledge of how to do things.

Psychomotor Domain

Behaviors that relate to the coordination of physical movements and performance: imitation, manipulation, precision, articulation, and naturalization.

Curriculum Guides

Grades, department, or school district specifications about what content must be covered in what period of time.

Integrated Thematic Teaching

Relating content and material from various subject areas.

Interactive Individualized Practice Activities

Lessons on CD-ROM that use questions and prompts to actively engage learners and give them immediate feedback.

Interdisciplinary Unit

A laterally planned unit of study in which topics are integrated to focus on a specific theme.

Lateral Unit Planning

Planning units that integrate knowledge across disciplines or content areas to convey relationships, patterns, and abstractions.

Peer Tutoring

One student teaches another at the same grade and age level.

Tacit Knowledge

The teacher's reflection on what works in the classroom, as discovered over time and through personal experience.

Thematic Units

A variety of activities and materials focused in several related content areas and taught using different instructional strategies.

Vertical Unit Planning

A method of developing units in a discipline by arranging the content to be taught hierarchically or in steps and in an order that ensures that all task-relevant prior knowledge required for subsequent lessons has been taught in previous lessons.

Criterion-Referenced Test

Compares a student's performance with an absolute standard of mastery, or criterion.


The wrong answer choices in a multiple choice or matching test item.

Formative Evaluation

Data collection practices for improving classroom instruction using curriculum-based measures (CBM) applied continuously throughout the school year to measure student progress.

Norm-Referenced Test

Compares a student's performance to that of a norm group, or a large, representative sample of learners.

Portfolio Assessment

A collection of work that shows a learner's growth in proficiency, long-term achievement, and significant accomplishments in a given academic area.


Refers to whether a test consistently yield the same or similar scores.


Rating scales that express criteria for assessing essay or portfolio content.

Standardized Tests

Administered and scores according to specific and uniform procedures; used to determine a student's performance level relative to that of others of similar age and grade.

Summative Assesment

Collection of information from throughout a period of time used to measure a student's current knowledge from the content area such as a final exam or a standardized test.


Refers to whether a test measures what it says it measures.

Direct Instruction

A teacher-centered, knowledge acquisition, presentation-recitation model for teaching facts, rules, and action sequences.

Feedback and Correcting Errors

The direct instruction strategy for handling right and wrong answers.

Gestural Prompts

Modeling or demonstrating for learners the skill being taught.

Guided Student Practice

The direct instruction strategy of presenting stimulus material and then eliciting practice, directed by the teacher, of the desired behavior.

Independent Practice

The direct instruction strategy in which the teacher brings facts and rules together in ways that force simultaneous consideration of all the individual units of a problem and connect the units into a single harmonious sequence of action.

Instructional Variety

The teacher's variability or flexibility of delivery during the presentation of a lesson.

Mastery Learning

An instructional strategy based on the principle that all students can attain lesson and unit objectives given appropriate instruction and sufficient time to learn.

Monitoring and Diagnosing

The processing of observing, mentally recording, and when necessary, redirecting or correcting students' behaviors.

Ordered Turns

Systematically going through the class and expecting each student to respond when his or her turn comes.

Passive Responding

Listening to the teacher's answer, reading about the correct answer, or listening to classmates recite the right answer.

Physical Prompts

Using hand-over-hand assistance to guide the learner to the correct performance.

Presenting and Structuring

The direct instruction strategy for presenting new material in small steps consistent with students' previous knowledge, ability level, and experience, so learners master one point before the teacher introduces the next point.

Regular Review

Consistently reviewing material throughout the lesson.

Rule-Example-Rule Order

Giving a rule, then an example of the rule, and then a repetition of the rule.

Verbal Prompts

Cues, reminders, or instructions to learners that help them correctly perform the skill being taught.

Advance Organizer

A framework or structure that organizes the content into meaningful parts.


Designing and sequencing lessons to encourage learners to use their own experiences to actively construct meaning that makes sense to them, rather than to acquire understanding through exposure to a format organized by the teacher.


Reasoning that proceeds from principles or generalization to their application in specific instances.


Selectively restricting a range of instances by eliminating things that appear to match the concept but that differ from it in critical dimensions.


Representations of a concept that include all the attributes essential for recognizing it as a member of a larger class.

Items that fail to represent the concept being illustrated by purposely not including one or more of the attributes essential for recognizing them as members of a larger class.

Full-Group Discussion

Student exchanges, with successive interactions among large numbers of students.


Responding in a similar manner to stimuli that differ but are bound by a central concept.


Reasoning used to draw a conclusion or make a generalization from specific instances.

Integrated Bodies of Knowledge

Units and lessons that stress the connections between ideas and the logical coherence of interrelated topics.

Moderating Tasks

The means by which the teacher orients students to the objective of the discussion; provides new or more accurate information; reviews, summarizes, and relates opinions and facts; and redirects the flow of information and ideas back to the objective.

Pair or Team Discussion

Best used when the task is highly structures, some consensus about the topic already exists, and the orienting instructions fully define each member's role.

Small-Group Discussions

About four to six students per group.

Social Framing

The context in which a message such as a lesson is received and understood.

Student-Centered Learning

Allows the student to select the form and substance of the learning experience.

Think, Pair, Share

A technique in which students working in pairs learn from one another and get to try out their ideas in a nonthreatening context before presenting them to the class.

Unguided Discovery Learning

To maintain high levels of student interest, selecting content based on student problems or interests and providing individually tailored feedback.

Convergent Questions

One that limits an answer to a single or a small number of responses.

Culture-Specific Questioning

Rules that govern social conversation among different cultural groups, which can be use

d to better target questions to specific populations of learners.

Divergent Question

One that has many or a broad range of acceptable responses.

Effective Questions

Questions for which students actively compose responses, thereby becoming engaged in the learning process.

Eliciting Probes

Questions asked to seek clarification of the student's response to determine its appropriateness or correctness.


A question that immediately follows a student's response to a question.

Question Sequence

Structuring, soliciting, and reacting, with many possible variations.


The teacher's responding to students' answering of questions.

Redirecting Probes

Questions that restructure a discussion with follow-up to get students back on track.


Question-asking behavior that encourages students to act on and think about the material.

Soliciting Probes

Question-asking behavior that encourages students to act on and think about the material.


How the teacher uses questions to direct learning.

Wait-Time 1

The amount of time a teacher gives a learner to response when first asked a question.

Wait-Time 2

The amount of time that passes after a learner's first response until the teacher or another student affirms or negates the answer.

Problem-Based Learning

Organizing instructional tasks around loosely structures or ill-defined problems that learners solve by using knowledge and skills from several disciplines.

Project-Based Learning

Promoting intrinsic motivation by organizing instruction around the tasks most likely to induce and support learner interest, effort, and persistence.

Reciprocal Teaching

A type of classroom group dialogue in which the teacher expects students to make predictions, ask questions, summarize, and clarify the text.

Self-Directed Learning

An approach to both teaching and learning that actively engages students in the learning process to acquire higher order thinking skills.

Teacher-Mediated Learning

Adjusting the instructional dialogue to help students restructure their learning and construct their own meanings from the content.

Active Involvement

When the group members talking about the goal of the group.

Cooperative Learning

An arrangement in which students work in groups and are rewarded on the basis of the success of group, According to Glasser, cooperative learning builds an environment that makes the classroom a place learners want to be.

Prosocial Behavior

Appropriate attitudes and values that that children learn from close and meaningful encounter among family members and in the classroom.

Task Specialization

Breaking a larger task into smaller subparts on which separate groups work.

Task Structure

In cooperative learning, specifying the goal, structuring the task, teaching and evaluating the collaborative process, monitoring group performance, and debriefing.


Using teams of heterogeneous learners to increase the collaborative skill, self-esteem, and achievement of individual learners.

Concept Mapping

A type of graphic organizer or mind tool for knowledge organization that can help learners interpret, represent, and organize information by making a graphic in cooperation with others.

Constructivist Teaching Strategies

Instructional tools that emphasize the learner's direct experience and the classroom dialogue while deemphasizing lecturing and telling.

Differentiated Instruction

Maximizing each student's academic success and personal growth as a learner by meeting the student where he or she is and providing the needed instruction and resource that lift him or her to the next step on the learning ladder.

Engaged Learning Time

The amount of time students devote to learning in the classroom.

InTASC Standards

The ten principles describing what teachers should know and be able to do, according to the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium.

Learning Style

The instructional and classroom conditions under which an individual prefers to learn.

Low-Profile Classroom Management

Coping strategies teachers use to stop misbehavior without disrupting the flow of a lesson.

Positive Reinforcement

Providing a desired stimulus or reward after a behavior increases in frequency.