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10 Cards in this Set

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Ribosomes
 Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Mitochondria
 Golgi Apparatus
 Lysosomes
Ribosomes ---synthesize proteins
endo plasmic reticulum---acts as a transport system for protein
mitochondria
Somatic Cells
Cells divide by mitosis, daughter
cell has same number of
chromosomes as parent cell
 Mitosis has 5 phases
The period between cell division is
known as interphase & has 3 sub
phases, G1, S, & G
 G1, phase where cell spends most
of its life, growth
 S phase, DNA is replicated
 G2, chromatids, DNA tightly coiled
and visible with microscope.
Interphase
 Paired chromatids arrange
themselves in an equatorial plane
midway the two daughter
centrioles
Metaphase
 Daughter chromatids now become
chromosomes
Anaphase
Daughter chromosomes under go
reverse of prophase
 The daughter cell separates into
two complete cells
Telophase
Reproduce by _________, these are
the reproductive cells
 Two successive divisions of
mother cell, producing 4 daughter
or granddaughter cells
 First division produces 2 cells with
normal diploid somatic number, 2nd
division produces 2 cells, haploid
number
Germ Cells
 Reproduce by meiosis, these are
the reproductive cells
 Two successive divisions of
mother cell, producing 4 daughter
or granddaughter cells
 First division produces 2 cells with
normal diploid somatic number, 2nd
division produces 2 cells, haploid
number
Abnormal division, rapidly
 Contain increased amount of
chromatin
 Increased ratio of nuclear material
to cytoplasm
 Vary greatly in size and shape
 Metastasis
Malignant cells
Radiosensitivity is a function of the
metabolic state of the cell being
irradiated.
 High metabolic rate, sensitive
 Mature cells, radioresistant
 Young cells, sensitive
 Increase mitotic, sensitive
 Stem cells, radiosensitive
Law of Bergonie and
Tribondeau, 1906
_____________ radiation strikes a
critical target, nucleus, DNA,
resulting in physical or chemical
changes.

______________ radiation interacts
with the water in cell forming free
radicals
Two Biological Effects
 Direct effect, radiation strikes a
critical target, nucleus, DNA,
resulting in physical or chemical
changes.
 Indirect effects, radiation interacts
with the water in cell forming free
radicals