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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What percentage of the worlds remaining tropical forest is in the Amazon?

How many people live in the Amazon?
More than 30million people, including 350 indigenous and ethnic groups

How many countries is the Amazon a part of?


Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.

What are four methods of deforestation?


Leaching (removing the trees leaves)

Clear-felling (trees are chopped down and chipped for pulp)

Selective logging

(Causes of deforestation)

Commercial logging/ timber extraction

Only valuable trees are chopped down (selective logging) but as they fall, they damage other trees. E.g. Teak and Mahogany in the Amazon basin.

(Causes of deforestation)

Road building

Roads are built to enable minerals, timber, cattle and crops to be moved easily. Roads bring new settlers who clear areas for farming.

E.g. the Trans-Amazonian Highway in Brazil

(Causes of deforestation)


Rainforests are cleared for plantations growing a single crop, especially soya cultivation and biofuel crops. Plants and grasslands are grown for cattle to graze on.

(Causes of deforestation)


Large areas of forest are cleared for open-cast mining of minerals such as iron, gold and copper.

E.g. the iron ore mine at Carajas in the Amazon basin.

(Causes of deforestation)

HEP (Hydroelectric power)

Rivers are dammed and huge areas of forest are flooded as a result.

E.g. Itaipu, Tucurui and the Xingu complex

(Causes of deforestation)

Land for peasants

Allows peasants to grow their own food. The wood that is cut down provides them with fuel. It stops overcrowding in other parts of the country.

Name 5 consequences of deforestation

Reduced biodiversity, release of greenhouse gas emissions, disrupted water cycles, increased soil erosion, disrupted livelihoods

(Consequences of deforestation)

Reduced biodiversity

Deforestation can cause wildlife to decline.

Wildlife is deprived of habitat and becomes vulnerable to hunting.

(Consequences of deforestation)

release of greenhouse gas emissions

Forests are the largest stores of carbon.

Deforestation causes 15% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

(Consequences of deforestation)

disrupted water cycles

As a result of deforestation, trees no longer evaporate ground water, which can cause the local climate to be much drier.

(Consequences of deforestation)

Increased soil erosion

Deforestation increases runoff and reduces the protection of the soil from tree litter

(Consequences of deforestation)

Disrupted livelihoods

Millions of people rely directly on forests, deforestation creates social problems which sometimes lead to violent conflict.
Management of soy farming in the Amazon

WWF works with the Soy Roundtable to improve the sustainability of their practices and to minimise impact on the Amazon and it's wildlife
Management of cattle ranching in the Amazon

WWF works with the beef industry to create standards that increase efficiency and reduce waste. This includes educating ranchers.

WWF works with the beef roundtable to develop principles that increase the productivity of existing cattle ranches and prevent establishment of new ranches in high conservation value forests.

Management of Hydropower in the Amazon
WWF provides scientific support to help find the best dam locations that will do the least harm to the environment
Management of illegal and unsustainable logging in the Amazon

WWF works to create market conditions that conserve the world's forests, but also provide economic and social benefits for businesses and people.

Management of infrastructure and road building in the Amazon
WWF's participation in the planning process succeeded in creating the most environmentally friendly road possible in Columbia and ensured that the needs of the local communities were considered.
What do international programmes do to help manage the Amazon?

International programmes such as the UN forum on forests (UNFF), promote sustainable forest management around the world.

What do international treaties do to manage and protect rainforests?

International treaties aim to protect rainforest ecosystems with international agreements.

CITES is a treaty that protects endangered species that are traded. The international tropical timber agreement (ITTA) (2006) aims to promote sustainable forest management and the sale of sustainable timber products.

What do international pressure groups do to manage the Amazon?

International pressure groups such as Greenpeace monitor deforestation and help track down illegal loggers.