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42 Cards in this Set

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Hazard

A natural event that threatens or causes damage, destruction or death.

Disaster (natural)

The results of a natural hazard taking place, such as deaths, injuries and destruction of property.

Earthquake

A sudden or violent movement within the earth's crust followed by a series of shocks.

Volcano

An opening in the Earth's crust out of which lava, ash and gases erupt.

Tropical storms

An area of low pressure with winds moving in a spiral around the centre point, called the eye of the storm. Winds are powerful and there is heavy rainfall.

Monitoring

recording physical changes, such as earthquake tremors around a volcano or tracking a tropical storm by satellite, to help predict when and where a natural hazard might strike.

Prediction

Being able to say when and where a natural hazard will strike

Mitigation

Reducing the risk from natural hazards before they happen, such as building earthquake proof buildings.

Aid

help given by more wealthy nations to less well-off nations, mainly to encourage development or recover from a natural disaster.

Disaster relief
Immediate help given after a disaster, including emergency responses such as sending fire fighters and search and rescue teams.
Geological hazards

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides

Climatic hazards

Storms, floods, drought

Biological hazards

Fires, pests, diseases

Technological hazards

Nuclear explosion, accidents, pollution
Destructive margin

Where one plate margin is being destroyed as it plunges beneath the other plate.

Constructive margin


Where two plates slide past each other
Focus
The centre of the earthquake underground

epicentre

The point on the surface above the focus

The Richter scale

Measures the energy released by an earthquake. Logarithmic scale that runs up to 8. Each point up the scale represents 30 times more energy released than the point below.

The Mercalli scale

Based on what people experience and the amount of damage done. Would not feel a tremor at 2, but at 10-12 houses collapse, there are landslides and the ground cracks.

Hotspot volcanoes

Form in the middle of plates as the plates move over a plume of magma

Lava flows

Destroy everything they move over, but rarely extend for more than 10km from a volcano

Ash

Can be carried for hundreds of miles in the atmosphere. Close to a volcano where the ash is thickest it can choke people and animals and can form such thick layers that roofs collapse.

Pyroclastic flows

Superheated clouds of gas and rocks that sweep down the volcano sides. Clouds can be up to 1000 degrees C and can travel at 450 miles per hour.
The eye wall

Surrounds the eye of a tropical storm, the air rapidly spirals upwards, causing high winds, torrential rain and storm clouds.

Saffir-simpson classification of tropical storms

category 1-5, wind speed 119->250kph, pressure >980-<920mb, storm surge 1->5.7m
Weather stations
A global network of weather stations monitor weather conditions. This data is used for forecasting and also tracking tropical storms.

Weather satellites

allow meteorologists to seen and analyse pictures of cloud formations from images captured during the day. Satellite sensors also monitor energy radiations, which can be capture day or night.

Radar

Provides important information on the direction and speed that clouds are moving and allows meteorologists to gauge precipitation.
Tropical storm in LIC

Hurricane Mitch hits central America (October 1998)
Tropical storm in HIC

Hurricane Floyd hits the USA (September 1999)
Predicting volcanoes

An increase in the number of small earthquakes, a swelling may develop in the side of the volcano, gases, such as sulphur dioxide, may escape.

Predicting earthquakes

Very small changes in electrical and radioactive emissions. Land may rise or tilt. The water levels in wells may fall.
Predicting tropical stoms

Meteorologists can monitor data on tropical storms as they develop and can track them as they approach land.

Preparing for volcanoes

Early warning systems to aid in evacuation. Sloping roofs on buildings to avoid the build up of ash.

Preparing for earthquakes
Building earthquake-proof buildings and structures. Education, carrying out earthquake drills. Having fully trained and equipped emergency services. Setting up early warning systems for tsunamis.
Preparing for tropical storms


Early warning systems to aid evacuation. Preparation of storm shelters. Houses equipped with storm shutters to protect glass. Effective flood protection measures to combat storm surges.
Short term consequences of hazards could include

People injured or killed. Buildings and farmland destroyed. Communications disrupted.

Longer-term consequences of hazards could include.

The economic cost of rebuilding. Economic slump because tourists stay away.

Short term responses to hazards

coping with the hazard itself. Emergency aid and disaster relief.

Long term responses to hazards

Rebuilding. Review and adjustment. Improving prediction and preparation.

Named example for consequences of hazards

Asian tsunami, December 2004.