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24 Cards in this Set

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Intraspecific Interaction
an interaction between organisms belonging to the same species
an interaction between organisms belonging to the same species
Intraspecific Interaction
Threshold Distance
the distance between individuals below which aggressive behavior is evoked
the distance between individuals below which aggressive behavior is evoked
Threshold Distance
Territoriality
the defense of real space against intruders
the defense of real space against intruders
Territoriality
Interspecific Interaction
an interaction between organisms belonging to different species
an interaction between organisms belonging to different species
Interspecific Interaction
Optimum
the balance between benefit and cost with the largest difference
the balance between benefit and cost with the largest difference
optimum
Competitive Exclusion
interspecific competition whereby one of the competing species completely eliminates the other; the exclusion of one species by another when they compete for a common resource that is in limited supply
interspecific competition whereby one of the competing species completely eliminates the other; the exclusion of one species by another when they compete for a common resource that is in limited supply
Competitive Exclusion
Competitive Exclusion Principle
if two species-populations are limited by the
same resource, then one of them will ultimately exclude the other unless they partition the resource or adapt to the selective pressure; the principle that two species having identical ecological requirements cannot coexist indefinitely
if two species-populations are limited by the
same resource, then one of them will ultimately exclude the other unless they partition the resource or adapt to the selective pressure; the principle that two species having identical ecological requirements cannot coexist indefinitely
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Ecological Displacement
spatial or temporal characteristics of organisms that have changed because of competition
spatial or temporal characteristics of organisms that have changed because of competition
Ecological Displacement
Coexistence
the continuing occurrence of two or more species in the same area or habitat, usually used of potential competitors
the continuing occurrence of two or more species in the same area or habitat, usually used of potential competitors
coexistence
Character Displacement
characteristics of organisms that have been altered by the selective pressure of competition; the tendency for enhanced character divergence
in the sympatric populations of two species that are partly sympatric and partly allopatric in their distributions, owing to the selective forces of competition
characteristics of organisms that have been altered by the selective pressure of competition; the tendency for enhanced character divergence
in the sympatric populations of two species that are partly sympatric and partly allopatric in their distributions, owing to the selective forces of competition
Character Displacement
Organisms maximize the difference between:
costs and benefits (the optimum)
Interactions can be studied in the real world by:
examining patterns, using natural
experiments, and setting up manipulative experiments.
Ecological conditions necessary for a sit-and-wait predator:
i) low predator energy requirement
ii) high prey density
iii) high prey mobility
Three problems with inferring an interaction from a pattern:
i) A pattern may not be expressed in
uncontrolled conditions
a) limiting factors other than
competition
b) opportunities for many kinds of
partitioning
c) opportunities for organisms and
environment to change
d) opportunities for immigration
ii) A pattern consistent with a particular
interaction actually may have another cause
iii) We have no direct evidence of harm