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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charles B. Davenport
1st teacher to teach ecology as biology
Charles B. Davenport’s text _______________ is believed to be the 1st American book with focus on statistics
Statistical Methods in Biological Variation
observations consisting of numerical facts
One numerical fact
Statistics In biological studies refer to _____________
the analysis and interpretation of data with a view toward objective evaluation of the reliability of the conclusions based on the data
Biostatistics or Biometry
biological measurement
Descriptive statistics
Once data have been obtained, it can be organized and summarized into an orderly presentation
Inferential statistics
If the data are used to make some generalized conclusions inferring characteristics of the whole from characteristics of its parts
null hypothesis
means we assume that there is no association in most cases
tells us the chances of a null hypothsis being correct
Data on a ratio scale
Measurement scales have a constant interval size, and
A true zero point and there is a physical significance to this zero
Data on an interval scale
Measurement scales have a constant interval size, but not a true zero
Both scales are for continuous data
Data on an ordinal scale
Consist of ordering or ranking of measurements
Deals with relative differences rather than quantitative differences
Data on a nominal scale
The variable studied is classified by some quality it possess rather than by a numerical measurement- sorting
Variable = an attribute
**both are for discrete (separate) units [whole units]
Continuous data
one for which there is a possible value between any other two possible values
Discrete variables
can take on only certain values
Ratio-, interval, and ordinal-scale data may be __________
either continuous or discrete
Nominal data are _______
Study of relationships between organisms and the environment.
Includes all organisms living in an area, and the physical environment with which these organisms interact.
Highest level of ecological organization.
Applied Ecology:
Gained greatest visibility in 1970s

Lead to ecology playing a vital part in social, political, & economic issues

Public awareness of ecological / environmental issues
Role of Rachel Carson
Silent Springs—DDT effects on the environment
Landscape ecology
Studies spatial patterns in landscapes and how they develop with emphasis on human impacts
Restoration ecology
Applies experimental research to the restoring of ecosystems on highly disturbed areas
Chemical ecology
Involves measuring changes in chemical composition of ecosystem components
Ecosystem management
Considers ecosystems as functional units and it stresses long-term sustainability
Ecology is the scientific study of __________
the structure and function of nature
distribution and abundance of organisms as influenced by environment
all aspects of growth and interactions of populations
transitions between ecosystems
distinguished primarily by their predominant plants and are associated with particular climates.
The distribution and abundance of organisms are limited by __________
Environmental Conditions
What has the greatest influence on environmental conditions?
Solar Radiation [the sun]
abiotic factors
Nonliving part of our world
Spherical shape and tilt of earth’s axis causes:
uneven heating of earth’s surface
uneven heating of earth’s surface drives:
air circulation patterns and consequently precipitation patterns.
Producer and emitter of energy

Hotter object; > energy emitted; shorter wavelengths
Receiver and transmitter of energy

Cooler object; < energy emitted; longer wavelengths
Solar constant
1.98 langley/minute
A langley
short-term variability and day-to-day observations/ considerations of abiotic factors
Abiotic factors include:
Air pressure
the boundary b/w two air masses with different temperatures and densities
w/in troposphere
temp decrease w/ altitude
w/in stratosphere
temp increase w/ height
Transition b/w the 2 layers
coldest point of troposphere, just below is site of J S.
Is a product of weather, created by air motion driven by unequal heating

Is long-term weather observations of 30+ years

Is highly predictable because it is based on averages of weather observations
The primary determinant of the amount of energy received on Earth by a given point
Only about _________ of total solar output actually reaches Earth’s surface
45 - 48%
Some radiation is


Greenhouse effect
heating of the surface of the planet that results from gases in the atmosphere trapping radiation
Hadley cells
air is heated at the equator, rises and spreads out poleward, begins to sink in the subtropics, and returns to the equator as the trade winds.
Coriolis force (effect)
as air begins flowing from high to low pressure, the Earth rotates under it, making the wind follow a curved path. In the Northern Hemisphere, the wind turns to the right of its direction of motion. In the Southern Hemisphere, it turns to the left. The Coriolis force is zero at the equator.
The trade winds
the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics near the Earth's equator. These winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere
the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 35 and 65 degrees latitude, blow from west to east to the north of the high pressure area
the dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and South poles towards the low-pressure areas within the westerlies at high latitudes.
a belt of calms and light baffling winds north of the equator between the northern and southern trade winds in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Horse Latitudes
Between about 30° to 35° north and 30° to 35° south of the equator lies the region known as the horse latitudes or the subtropical high. This region of subsiding dry air and high pressure results in weak winds.
Adiabatic cooling
Adiabatic cooling deals with the cooling of parcels of air as they rise, or are forced up, through the atmosphere
Relative humidity
a term used to describe the amount of water vapor that exists in a gaseous mixture of air and water.
any manner of swirling vortex
the transport of deeper water to shallow levels
El nino
is a periodic change in the atmosphere and ocean of the tropical Pacific region. It is defined in the atmosphere by the sign of the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia, and in the ocean by warming of surface waters of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean.
a complex mixture of living and non-living material.
the study of soil
Modern Day soil definitions
The stratum below the vegetation and above the bed rock
Five factors involved in soil formation
Parent material
Biotic factors
Endemic species
found no where else
High lime content
Soil Physical characteristics influences
Moisture content
Fertile soils
soil profile
The minerals and organic components of soil are differentiated into strata of various depths
Strata are called
O horizon
Organic Layer freshly fallen organic material - most superficial layer.
A horizon
Mixture of minerals, clay, silt and sand.
B horizon
Clay, humus, and other materials leached from A horizon - often contains plant roots.
C horizon
Weathered parent material.
Organic stratum
Humus (top soil) layer
Humus (top soil) layer
O and Oa layers
Three (3) types of humus
Mor – dry or moist acidic
Moder - < acidic
Mull – fresh, moist soil with Ca ++, alkaline
Saturated soil
A condition in which all easily drained voids (pores) between soil particles are temporarily or permanently filled with water, significant saturation during the growing season is considered to be usually one week or more
Field capacity
the amount of soil moisture or water content held in soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has materially decreased
Capillary water
Moisture held in the tiny spaces between soil particles. It is the principal source of moisture for a plant's roots.
Wilting point
defined as the minimal point of soil moisture the plant requires not to wilt
Available water capacity
the range of available water that can be stored in soil and be available for growing crops
Hygroscopic water
Hygroscopic water content has been defined as the moisture that an initially dry soil will adsorb when brought into equilibrium with an atmosphere of 50% relative humidity (RH) at 20°C
Hydric soil
a soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part.
Different methods of weathering
Water, wind and temperature cause rock surfaces to flake and peel off
CO2 + H2O - H2CO3; rain water filters organics and pick up acids & minerals; chemical reactions occur– then smaller rock pieces are decomposed into minerals
living organisms die and decompose
loess deposit
alluvial deposit
lake (fresh) water
sea water
Glacial ice
till deposit
acid humus layer
Slow decomposition
Ash color A horizon
Coniferous forest
Ca ++ layer in B or upper C horizon
Low rainfall areas
CaCO2 accumulation
Salts removed leaving Ca and Mg in micelle
Semi-arid areas
accumulation of Fe and Al oxides
Other ions leach -> nutrient poor soil
Humid tropical areas
result from removal of soluble salts in an area
Arid regions
Fe in soil with prolonged wetness and anaerobic conditions
Low rate of humus formation
Dull gray color to horizons
Cold wet biomes (tundra)