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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how does stress in the crust change earths surface?
streches, slips, folds earth
Where are the faults usually found, and why do they form?
occur along plate boundaries where the forces of plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks
What land features result from the forces of plate movement?
anticlines and synclines
a force that acts on rock to to change its shape or volume.
- it can stretch fold or slip rocks in the crust.
pulls on the crust, streching rock so that it becomes thinner.
-occurs when 2 plates move apart.
squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
-when one plate pushes against another plate.
a type of stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions.
- causes rock to break or slip apart
normal faults
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward.
- the rocks move at an angle
- they move apart
hanging wall
the block of rock that lies aboe the fault.
foot wall
the block of rock that lies underneath the fault.
reverse fault
when the blocks of the faults move in opposite directions.
-when rocks push each other
strike-slip fault
when the blocks of the faults slide side ways.
-because rocks move past each other
-no up or down motion (moves side ways)
a fold in the rocks that nbends upward into an arch.
a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley.
How does the energy of an earthquake travel through Earth? Describe the steps.
seismic waves carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus, through earths interior, an across the surface.
- first waves that arrive are P waves.
- Second are S waves
- and last are surface waves which destroy places.
What are the scales used to measure the strength of an earth quake?
the most common scales are the mercalli scale, richter cale, and the moment magnitude scale.
the shaking annd trembling results from the movement of rock beneath earths surface.
the area beneath earths surface where the rock that is under stress breaks making an earthquake.
- the place where the earth quake is triggered.
the center right above the focus
P waves
are siesmic waves that compress and expand the ground
- first waves to arrive.
- compress ad expand ground
- they damage buildings
S waves
siesmic waves the vibrate sid to side and up and down.
- they are the second to arrive
-they shake buildings violently
-do not move through liquid
Surface waves
are siesmic waves the exspand out wards.
- last to arrive (when s waves reach epicenter)
- produce severe ground movements
- they roll the ground like ocean waves and shake buildings.
mercalli scale
a scale to measure earthquakes from 1 to 12
-ratings based on damage
- not used much because the same earth quake could have different rating in certain locations because it is based on damage.
Ritcher Scale
a scale that bases the earthquake on the size of its siesmic waves.
- fault movements.
- not that accurate.
measures and records seismic waves.
a number that scientist assighn to the earthquake according to its size.
moment magnitude scale
a rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake.
-rates earthquakes by there
- works for all earthquakes.
How do scientist locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
they use siesmic waves to locate an earthquakes epicenter.- they measure the diffrence of the P and S waves
3 types of sttress
tension, comperssion, shearing
what causes folds?
What do folds do to earth?
make mountains.
What is a fault block mountain?
ain that is formed when there are 2 normal faults formed parralel to each other.
What is a Plateau?
a large are of lfat land elevatred high above sea level.
-they form when forces in the crust push up a large flat block.
What is a fault?
when enough stress builds in a rock and the rock breaks.
What are the three types of faults?
-Normal Faults
- Reverse fault
- strike-slip faults.
Compare the way that comperssion affects the crust to the way that tension affects the crust?
tension stretches the crust and compression folds or breaks the crust
What are the three types of siesmic waves?
- P waves (primary waves)
-S waves (secondary waves)
- Surface Waves
How does an earthquake form?
the forces of plate movement, when to plates collide.
Where does an Earth quake begin- what layer?
in the lithsophere, upper mantle
What type of siesmic waves make ground roll like ocean waves?
Surface waves
what is magnitude for a small, moderate, powerful earthquake?
it would be a small number because the earth quake is small and it is rated on its size.
how is magnitude measured using Richter scale?
its is rated on the earthquakes siesmic waves.
how doe seismographs work?
sesimic waves cause the seismographs drum to vibrate. but the suspended weight with the pen attached moves very lttle. There fore the pen stays in place and records the drums vibrations.
how do geologists monitor faults?
with instruments to measure changes in elevation, tilting of the lands surface and ground movements along faults.
the record of an earthquakes seismic waves produced by a seismograph.
- zig zag pattern of lines
how do you read a seismograph?
when the zig zags are bigger it means that the seismic waves are bigger, when the waves are smalller it means
the the siemic waves are smaller.
-p waves are smaller, followed by S waves, the surface waves
What are the 4 types of instuments scientist use to monitor faults?
tiltmeters, creep meters, laser-ranging devices, and satellites.
- measure change in elevation , tilting of land, ground movements along fault
What are tiltmeters?
- instruments that measure tilting or raising of the ground.
- they have two bulbs that are filled with liquid connected to a hollow system.
- if the land tilts then the liquid will go from one light bulb to another.
what are creep meters?
instruments that measure horizontal movement of the ground around fault
- they consist of a wire stretched across a fault. on pone side of the fault the wire is anchored to a post. on the other side the wire is attached to a whieght that slides every time the fault moves.
What are laser- ranging devices?
an instument to detect horizantal fault movements.
- it uses a laser the device time the laser as it gos from one place and back.
If the time changes it because the fault has moved.
What are GPS Satellites?
an instrument that monitors the change in elevation.
- Locate points on earth surface so if earth rises it can tell that the land is cloder up to the satellite.
How is siemograph data used?
used to map faults and detect changes in faults.
- also scientist are trying to find a method to predict earth quakes.
Mapping Faults
when siesmic waves hit a fault they bounce off them.
- scientist can use the date to see how deep and long the faults are.
the force that opposes the motion of one substance as it moves across another substance.
What happens to faults with not much friction?
they can slip past eachother.
- can only produce small earth quakes because not much stress in faults.
Can scientist predict Earth Quakes?
Why is it difficult to predict earthquakes?
because many times scientist think an earthquake is gonna happen but then it fails and notthing happens.
how do geologist determine earthquake risk?
by studying where faults are active and where past earthquakes have occured.
- earth quakes are likely where faults are storing energy
what kinds of damage does an earth quake cause?
earthquakes cause damage like
- shaking
- liquifaction
- after schocks
What can be done to increase earthquake saftey ad reduce earthquake damage?
is to drop, cover and hold
- drop- to drop down
-cover- to go underneath a tabe or desk
-hold- to hold onto the table or desk as hard as you can
- to prepare buy canned food and water with a first aid kit.
What bad does shaking cause after an earth quake?
it can cause
-land slides
- avalanches
- it can destroy bridges or buildings.
What area of the United States has the highest earthquake risk?
the coast of california.
- in the pacific ocean
when an earhquakes violent shaking suddenly turs loose and into soft soil to make it into liquid mud.
- cracks open in ground.
an earth quake that occurs right after a large earthquake.
What weakends buildigs alot after earthquakes?
the water dispaced by an earthquake that forms a large wave.
- happens when an earth quake jolts ocean floor.
How an furniture be dangerous during a quake? How can it protect you?
- it can fall on you.
- you can hold on to it.
How do you reduce earthquake damage?
buil stronger buildings and more flexible buildings.
base-isolated building
a desighn that reduces the amount of energy that reaches a building during an earthquake.
- rest on shock absorbing pads
Why do scientists monitor faults?
to predict when an earthquake is coming.
where is the lowest risk in the U.S. of earth quakes?
South east portion.
What determines how strong the shaking is in an Earthquake?
the plants and soil.
-loose soil more shaking
When is liquifaction more likely?
when there is a tsunami or an earth quake and the soil under your house turns to mud and your house moves.
What is the best way to protect your self in an earthquake?
to drop down to the floor and holdon to a piece of furniture.
How do tsunamis form?
they begin as a low wave and the gradually become a bigger wave.
What can you do when desighning a house to make it more Earth quake proof?
you can bolt hyour house to the ground, not put and heavy furniture in your room.